Steadily promote national overall planning of endowment insurance


2022-08-08: [Chinese Article Link]  In June 2021, the Ministry issued the 14th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Human Resources and Social Security, which established a unified national integrated pension insurance information system and a multi-level social security information platform. In July of the same year, eight departments, including the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, jointly issued guidance on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, making it clear that the restrictions on the registration of flexible workers in basic pension insurance at their place of employment should be liberalized. Director of Theory, Researcher, Xu Hsiao-mei Establishment and operation of the national integrated system of pension insurance for employees of enterprises Facilitator: The Integrated National Information System on Basic Old-Age Insurance for Employees in Enterprises is on-line this year. What is the status of access? What will be the role of the National Integration of Old-Age Insurance? Hong Xiang (Director of the Social Security System of the Information Centre of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security): The National Integration of Basic Pension Insurance for Employees in Enterprises, officially launched on 1 January of this year, is a major decision-making exercise by the Party's central government and the State Council. The “Five-Systems” of enterprise pension insurance have been implemented throughout the country, namely, the harmonization of contribution policies, the harmonization of fund income and expenditure management, the harmonization of entitlements, the harmonization of information systems and the harmonization of service management. The creation of a unified national integrated information system on basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises (hereinafter referred to as the “National Integrated System”), the centralization of data on pension insurance and the coordination of departmental and departmental offices, are important elements of and important guarantees for the national integration of pension insurance, as well as for the further improvement of the effectiveness of management tools and services. In order to guarantee the implementation of the integrated national system of basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises, the Ministry of Human and Social Welfare has adopted a “big control” model, following a general approach of national harmonization of standards, real-time synchronization of data, departmental linkages and effective risk management. On 28 December 2021, the Ministry's integrated national system was officially launched; by the end of June this year, all the provinces of the country had completed the contacts of the Ministry of Finance and Finance of the Fund, and a “one account” of the National Fund for Basic Pension Insurance for Employees of Enterprises had been established. The operational system of the 29 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, which has been linked to the Ministry's Integrated National Information System and is operating online, has made it possible initially to centralize the management of pension insurance data throughout the country and to consolidate risk control. As the national integration of old-age insurance progresses, the construction of a unified national social security public service platform is steadily being carried out, with the Party's nineteenth Congress proposing the establishment of a unified national social security public service platform. In September 2019, the national social security public service platform was officially launched and now provides a cumulative total of 77 national and cross-regional online social security services, with an annual increase in the number of visits, with a cumulative service of 3.58 billion. The social security transfer online application is fully implemented, the unemployment insurance benefit and the unemployment benefit are implemented as “one-by-one” and are supported by a “one-key application”; the social security eligibility certificate enables the population to go out of the house to complete the operation; and the social security referral service supports more than 100 million inquiries to make it easier for insured persons to understand their social security rights and interests. As the integrated national system is in place and operational, the results are gradually becoming more visible, mainly in the following areas. The first is the harmonization of data and operational standards, which began at the beginning of 2020, and which took one and a half years, with the release on 1 August 2021 of the National Integrated National Standard for Pension Insurance, which ensures that all provinces operate on the basis of the same terminology system and that the resulting data are placed at the centre of the operation in accordance with the unified standard. The second is the centralization of the national data system, which is designed to ensure that departmental data on the operation of pension insurance, the financial data of the Fund are kept in real time, complete and accurate at the ministerial level, that the Ministry's joint operations are effectively supported and that real-time risk management is carried out, and that the basic pension insurance fund for employees of enterprises is managed in a single account. Third is the establishment of the Ministry’s provincial coordination and control system. Based on the Ministry’s unified operational hub, which is deployed at the departmental level, the risk profile is automatically screened, and the management of business operations is effectively achieved. The fourth is to improve access to public services. Under the integrated national model, national standards are harmonized and data are centralized throughout the country, and the participants do not need to distinguish between the period of participation, the place of entry, or the “one-key” to achieve a centralized search of all historical information on social security and to present their own “electronic archives” in real time; when they retire, the social security agencies can provide a unified reminder of the social security contributions that have been omitted from the country's mobility; and further optimize the transfer chain, streamline the transfer process and allow the transfer of inter-provincial social security relationships to be “accelerated again”. At present, the social security system is largely in place, but there are varying levels of coverage at all levels, and regional imbalances remain unresolved. There is a need to further improve the network of social security management services and services at the level of five, to adapt to the needs of mobility and changing identities, to the platform economy and to new employment patterns, to continuously expand the “one network” of social security services, to expand the “one cartoon” application of residential services and to make them information-friendly. First, to improve the national unified social security public service platform; to consolidate the national centralized management base for social security data and to create a system of risk control covering both regulatory and ex post audits. Continuous improvement of the functions of the National Social Security Public Service Platform, with the classification of national and cross-regional services and the promotion of operational synergies, regional collaboration and information-sharing. Second, by the end of June of this year, the number of persons holding social security cards nationwide reached 1.36 billion, covering 96.3 per cent of the population. Of these, 575 million card holders also received electronic social security cards on their mobile phones, allowing them to register for insurance, search for social security benefits and receive pensions, unemployment benefits and work injury Tianjin, etc. The next step will be to actively promote the “full business entry card” in the area of social welfare. Third, the multilevel and multi-pillar social security system is being implemented, and the national centralized occupational injury security information platform has been set up in the initial stages. It has consolidated information systems interfaces between pilot provinces and pilot platform enterprises, supported process processing and data-sharing, and facilitated access to basic benefits for new business practitioners. The development of an individual pension information management service platform is being advanced to provide easy and fast service to participants through interface with eligible commercial banks and financial industry platforms. Fourth, to enhance synergies in data-sharing operations; to upgrade social security information systems at all levels of “technology” to achieve full-process, rule-based, data-storage systems and closed-cycle management. Strengthened data-sharing and data regulation systems, network verification and joint operations, effective wind control capacity, zero risk dynamics in social security information systems, and progress towards a new phase of “big data” development in the “big data” platform. Actively involving new industry practitioners in the insurance scheme What is the coverage of basic pension insurance in our country? What groups of persons are currently largely excluded from basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises? Kim Vigang (Vice-President of the China Social Security Institute and Vice-President of the National Institute of Systems of Zhejiang University): Our basic pension insurance is a statutory social insurance scheme established by the State, which includes basic pension insurance for urban employees and basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents. Under the Social Insurance Act, basic old-age pension insurance for urban workers has the following main characteristics: first, that workers should be covered by basic pension insurance, which is paid jointly by employers and workers; second, that social integration of basic pension insurance is combined with individual accounts, and that the basic old-age pension insurance fund is composed of employer units, individual contributions and government subsidies; third, that employers should pay basic old-age insurance contributions in proportion to the gross salary of their own employees, as determined by the State, to be credited to the basic old-age insurance fund; fourth, that workers should pay basic old-age insurance contributions in proportion to their own wages, as defined by the State, to be credited to the personal accounts; fifth, that self-employed persons who are unemployed, part-time workers who are not covered by basic old-age insurance in the employer, and other flexible employed persons may participate in basic old-age insurance insurance, and that they should be credited to the basic old-age pension insurance fund and to the individual accounts, as defined by the State; and sixth, that the basic old-age pension insurance fund should be underpaid by the Government. In addition, in accordance with the provisions of the Social Insurance Act, the State establishes and improves the new system of social pension insurance for rural and urban residents, in which the new type of social pension insurance for rural areas is combined with individual contributions, collective benefits and government subsidies. Individual contributions are recorded in personal accounts and the benefits consist of basic pensions and personal account pensions, and local governments at all levels can combine social pension insurance for urban residents and new forms of rural social pension insurance. Thus, basic old-age insurance in our country reflects the traditional social solidarity, risk-distribution and security features of social insurance, as well as a sense of self-security and incentives for individual workers or residents. In recent years, as the reform of the country's pension insurance system has deepened, the increase in contributions in the area of basic pension insurance has been increasing and the number of participants has been increasing, and by the end of June this year the number of participants in basic pension insurance had risen to 1.04 billion, or 1,166,000 more than at the end of the previous year, and the participation rate had risen to 95 per cent. Of these, 493 million were insured for basic old-age pension for urban workers, an increase of 124.3 million from the end of the previous year; 547 million were insured for basic old-age pension for urban and rural residents, a decrease of 770,000 from the end of the previous year. This disparity between the number of urban and rural residents and the number of urban employees participating in basic pension insurance reflects the fact that since this year a number of persons who were previously covered by basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents have been transferred to basic pension insurance for urban and rural workers, in line with the trend towards basic pension insurance in the country. Currently, the non-insured basic old-age insurance for employees in enterprises is concentrated mainly on rural workers and new forms of employment, and in the context of rapid industrialization and urbanization, there has been an increasing shift from rural to non-farming industries and towns. In 2021, the total number of peasant workers in the country reached 292 million, of which 121 million were local farmers, representing an increase of 4.1 per cent compared with the previous year; 172 million were out-of-country farmers and 8,000,000 were employed across provinces. However, only some of the rural workers who work in urban areas participate in the basic pension insurance for employees of enterprises, and how the hundreds of millions of rural workers move into rural and urban areas and contribute to the insurance system, in accordance with the law, can be incorporated into the corresponding basic pension insurance system, guaranteeing their rights and interests in mobile employment and participation in the insurance system, is an urgent issue for the country's basic old-age insurance for the current and future period. It is worth mentioning that in recent years, with the rapid development of the new industry, there has also been an increase in the number of practitioners, and according to incomplete statistics, the number of workers using Internet platforms to provide shared services reached 9,000,000 in 2021. At present, because the relationship between workers in the new form of employment and those in the Platform is difficult to define as traditional labour relations, the Platform's enterprises are reluctant to enter into labour contracts with workers in the new form of employment dependent on the Platform and to pay their contributions in accordance with the law. At the same time, new forms of employment have resulted in fewer active participation in basic pension insurance for urban workers, owing to a number of factors, including job insecurity, lower incomes, greater mobility and a weak sense of participation. In July 2021, eight departments, such as the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare and the National Commission for Development and Reform, jointly issued guidelines on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, which require flexible workers to liberalize their residence restrictions on basic pension insurance at their places of employment and to organize flexible employment workers who are not covered by basic pension insurance for workers in urban or rural areas, as required, to participate in basic old-age pension insurance for urban and rural residents, and to urge enterprises to participate in social insurance in accordance with the law, and to direct and support workers in new forms of employment who are not in full compliance with the established conditions of labour relations to participate in social insurance in accordance with their own circumstances, in order to promote the participation of workers in new forms of employment in basic old-age insurance in accordance with the law. As the economy continues to evolve, the forms of employment will become more flexible and diversified, and the total number of flexible workers will continue to grow, such as those in the new industry. Policies on basic old-age insurance will need to be further improved, awareness-raising will be intensified, flexible workers, including those in the new industry, will be actively guided and promoted by the law to participate in the basic old-age insurance for employees in enterprises, and a “safety net” will need to be woven. Transferability of social security for persons employed in the diaspora Facilitator: Please share the typical cases and experiences of the country in improving the registration of social security relations and the transfer of succession measures, and in liberalizing the residence restrictions of flexible workers in their place of employment. Quanzheng (Deputy Director of the Human Resources Research Unit of the Institute of Public Administration and Human Resources of the Centre for Development Studies of the State Council): Since the Party's eighteenth year, the coverage of social security coverage has continued to expand, the country's capacity for national integration has been increasing, and the transfer of social security has continued to benefit more mobile populations, displacing the concerns of more expatriate and flexible workers. In recent years, the system of registration and transfer of social security relations for persons employed abroad has been improving, as has the system of access to basic pension insurance for persons with flexible employment in places of employment. In 2010 and 2016, the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare issued circulars on the issuance of opinions on specific questions on the transfer of the basic pension insurance relationship between urban enterprises and on the transfer of the basic pension insurance relationship between urban enterprises, respectively, regulating issues such as the place of calculation for the same number of years of contributions, the historical legacy of the contribution information, the contribution account for the temporary basic pension insurance, and the one-time payment of the pension insurance contribution to further safeguard the rights and interests of persons in inter-provincial employment in old-age insurance. In 2018, the Central Transfer System of the Basic Old-Age Insurance Fund for Employees in Enterprises was introduced, and in 2019 the National Social Security Public Service platform was launched. At the end of 2020, 31 provinces and Xinjiang Production and Construction Regiments of Xinjiang have achieved provincial integration of basic pension insurance for their employees. In 2021, the Office of the National Institute of Health Insurance and the Office of the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the Interim Scheme for the Transfer of Basic Health Insurance Relationships, which provides for the trans-regional transfer of all categories of the population. In July of the same year, eight departments, such as the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, jointly issued guidance on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, which makes it clear that workers in new forms of employment may take part in the basic pension insurance for employees of enterprises with flexible employment status, as well as in the basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents. There has been considerable experience in promoting the continuity of social insurance for persons employed abroad and in accelerating the reform of the restrictions on the local integration of persons in flexible employment, which has yielded tangible results. In the first half of this year, the Integrated National Information System on Basic Pension Insurance for Business Employees in the provinces of Anhui, Henan and Hunan became operational. In order to overcome the effects of the epidemic, the departments of social security and information management at all levels in these provinces have completed a series of tasks, including data collation, system adaptation, departmental communication, on-line switching, testing training, and system commissioning, and are now open to all types of social security services, on-line and off-line. The second is to speed up the reform of SWD’s services, which improves the efficiency and quality of social security succession services for off-site workers. For example, in Shenzhen, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, 15-minute social security “services” have been set up, and “one-stop” services have been “on-line” and “one-time” services have been promoted to reduce the burden of social security on the population. Repeated information does not have to be filled out, off-site operations do not have to run, and the time frame for processing it is shorter, making it easier and faster for the public to do so. At the same time, there has been an increase in the dissemination of policies aimed at people who are employed abroad, ranging from “in person” to “in person” to “in person” and “in person” from “in person” to “in person” to “in-home”” to “in-service” to continuously optimize the social security experience of enterprises and the general public, and to promote “understand and calculate” the treatment of social security registration policies. The third is to speed up the removal of restrictions on local employment participation of flexible workers. For example, in 2021, Zhejiang Province issued a circular on improving the participation of flexible employees in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises, opening up the restrictions on the household registration of flexible employees in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees in places of employment, providing for flexible employment within the legal working age for employees of the province, which, on a voluntary basis, may participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises in their personal capacity, subject to individual payment of old-age insurance, in accordance with the provisions of the voluntary principle; flexible employment workers of foreign provinces may participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises in their place of employment after registering their employment in the province; flexible employment workers participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises, allowing them to choose a contribution base between 60 per cent and 300 per cent of the average wage for employees of full-calibre urban units in the previous year of the province, with a view to making the results of social security reform more equitable and equitable for the benefit of the population. The continuous improvement of the network of five levels of social security management and services, from the central level to the provinces, municipalities, counties and communes (streets), and the finer and more efficient operation of the social security transfer service, have led to a sharp increase in the sense of social security access and well-being of persons employed abroad. Building a unified national social security information platform Facilitator: The National Integrated System of Basic Old-Age Insurance for Employees in Enterprises has been put in place. What next steps should be taken to promote the development of a unified national basic old-age insurance information system and a multi-level social security information platform? Li Changyu (Deputy Researcher, China Institute of Labour and Social Security Sciences): The establishment of a unified national basic pension insurance information system is an important support for the implementation of the integrated national system and marks the beginning of a new phase in the development of social security in China. In accordance with the deployment of the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, there is an urgent need to improve the stability of the system, as is the case with the integrated national information system. The new system involves data on pension insurance for workers in nearly 500 million urban enterprises, with more frequent cross-sectoral exchanges of information, and the large volume of operations is an important test of the stability of the system. Second, the regular operation of the short-term component has been affected, most of it by the personalization of social security operations in various regions, as in the case of the new system currently in operation in Henan, which does not support the retirement of multi-participating participants, the trans-institutionalization of insurance units in the provinces and municipalities, and more than 20 operations. Third, there is a need to develop integrated social security information planning and, in recent years, the provinces of Guangdong, Qinghai and Jiangsu have invested considerable human and material resources in the development of a province-wide integrated human society system, which has been fully operational, process-wide and integrated throughout the province. Since the new system is intended only as a platform for the operation of a single insurance scheme for urban enterprises, there is a long-term need to address the problems of central and local information system integration, to better respond to the needs of the population in terms of rural-urban and inter-regional mobility and identity changes, and to provide the support for national harmonization, regional integration, simplification of norms and easy and rapid informationization. The development of a unified national social security information platform is key to the modernization of the social security governance system and its capacity for governance, and further improvements are needed in the five-tier social security management service system and network of services, focusing on improving the level of sophistication and services, adapting them to the needs of mobility and identity changes, and better safeguarding the implementation of social security systems. First, the development of a unified national social security information system, taking into account the operational characteristics of the various types of social security insurance, and taking into account the development of existing social security information systems in all regions, is being studied. It is proposed to move forward in three phases: first, to extend the functions of the existing integrated national information system on basic pension insurance for employees of existing enterprises to urban and rural residents, institutions, etc., and to address the root causes of the problems of re-entry into basic old-age insurance; second, to build a unified national information management system for employment injury insurance, unemployment insurance and its integration into the basic old-age insurance system, thereby creating a unified information management platform for the social security sector throughout the country; and, lastly, to establish, through a mechanism of information-sharing between the public administration and, through the application of data, interconnectivity between the human and social services and the relevant operational sectors, such as the National Health Insurance Institute, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the Ministry of Former Military Affairs, a single national social security information platform covering social insurance, social assistance, social welfare and social welfare benefits, as well as social welfare benefits; and, finally, to achieve a genuine “one-wind” service and a “one-stop shop” of public social security services. Second, to accelerate the process of standardizing and standardizing social security, which is the foundation and entry point for information-based construction, the development of a unified national social security information system needs to be standardized. In this regard, the national unified health-care information platform, which is fully operational, provides lessons learned. On the one hand, it is proposed to establish a broad system of standards such as basic social security data standards, work standards, public service standards, evaluation and monitoring standards, and to create “common languages” that are shared, standardized and interchangeable, such as basic operating standards for social security, operating agencies and personnel standards, standards for the flow of services, standards for the interaction of information, etc. On the other hand, it is recommended that, on the basis of improved social security policies, the standardization of social security business processes, information-sharing and operational synergies be promoted as soon as possible, as well as the harmonization of key national social security business processes, such as contributions to insurance, collection of fees, distribution of entitlements, fund supervision, access to equity records, etc., as well as cross-sectoral, cross-level and cross-regional information-sharing mechanisms. Third, to enhance the application of the system and to help with the fine-tuning of social security management, the National Unified Social Security Information System (NSIS) was built to address the need of the population to facilitate the provision of social security services by re-entering, transferring and enhancing the Fund's resilience to risk, improving the accessibility and equalization of social security services. It is recommended to strengthen the application of information systems to optimize social security business processes and to promote non-discrimination in social security operations; to actively promote cross-practice, cross-level, cross-sectoral information-sharing and operational synergies in the human resources social security sector; and to use data to assess the performance of the system and to protect against fund risks. Cross-sectoral sharing is achieved at the local level by cross-practice sharing within the social security sector of human resources, using national data and cross-sectoral sharing interfaces such as social security card holders, employment, social security, etc., which brings together ministerial departments to achieve cross-level and cross-sectoral sharing of matching; strengthening the intellectualization, fast-tracking of services and precision in management of the social security services, regulating the various existing local social services platforms, gradually establishing more specialized, simple operating processes and user-friendly online service windows, and making the social security services “stand-by” “stand-as-you-go” as soon as possible. (Responsible Editor: Wang Jin-woo)


Note: This is a machine translated version of the Chinese news media article. A mature and nuanced reading is suggested.




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Steadily promote national overall planning of endowment insurance


2022-08-08: [Article Link]  In June 2021, the Ministry issued the 14th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Human Resources and Social Security, which established a unified national integrated pension insurance information system and a multi-level social security information platform. In July of the same year, eight departments, including the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, jointly issued guidance on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, making it clear that the restrictions on the registration of flexible workers in basic pension insurance at their place of employment should be liberalized. Director of Theory, Researcher, Xu Hsiao-mei Establishment and operation of the national integrated system of pension insurance for employees of enterprises Facilitator: The Integrated National Information System on Basic Old-Age Insurance for Employees in Enterprises is on-line this year. What is the status of access? What will be the role of the National Integration of Old-Age Insurance? Hong Xiang (Director of the Social Security System of the Information Centre of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security): The National Integration of Basic Pension Insurance for Employees in Enterprises, officially launched on 1 January of this year, is a major decision-making exercise by the Party's central government and the State Council. The “Five-Systems” of enterprise pension insurance have been implemented throughout the country, namely, the harmonization of contribution policies, the harmonization of fund income and expenditure management, the harmonization of entitlements, the harmonization of information systems and the harmonization of service management. The creation of a unified national integrated information system on basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises (hereinafter referred to as the “National Integrated System”), the centralization of data on pension insurance and the coordination of departmental and departmental offices, are important elements of and important guarantees for the national integration of pension insurance, as well as for the further improvement of the effectiveness of management tools and services. In order to guarantee the implementation of the integrated national system of basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises, the Ministry of Human and Social Welfare has adopted a “big control” model, following a general approach of national harmonization of standards, real-time synchronization of data, departmental linkages and effective risk management. On 28 December 2021, the Ministry's integrated national system was officially launched; by the end of June this year, all the provinces of the country had completed the contacts of the Ministry of Finance and Finance of the Fund, and a “one account” of the National Fund for Basic Pension Insurance for Employees of Enterprises had been established. The operational system of the 29 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, which has been linked to the Ministry's Integrated National Information System and is operating online, has made it possible initially to centralize the management of pension insurance data throughout the country and to consolidate risk control. As the national integration of old-age insurance progresses, the construction of a unified national social security public service platform is steadily being carried out, with the Party's nineteenth Congress proposing the establishment of a unified national social security public service platform. In September 2019, the national social security public service platform was officially launched and now provides a cumulative total of 77 national and cross-regional online social security services, with an annual increase in the number of visits, with a cumulative service of 3.58 billion. The social security transfer online application is fully implemented, the unemployment insurance benefit and the unemployment benefit are implemented as “one-by-one” and are supported by a “one-key application”; the social security eligibility certificate enables the population to go out of the house to complete the operation; and the social security referral service supports more than 100 million inquiries to make it easier for insured persons to understand their social security rights and interests. As the integrated national system is in place and operational, the results are gradually becoming more visible, mainly in the following areas. The first is the harmonization of data and operational standards, which began at the beginning of 2020, and which took one and a half years, with the release on 1 August 2021 of the National Integrated National Standard for Pension Insurance, which ensures that all provinces operate on the basis of the same terminology system and that the resulting data are placed at the centre of the operation in accordance with the unified standard. The second is the centralization of the national data system, which is designed to ensure that departmental data on the operation of pension insurance, the financial data of the Fund are kept in real time, complete and accurate at the ministerial level, that the Ministry's joint operations are effectively supported and that real-time risk management is carried out, and that the basic pension insurance fund for employees of enterprises is managed in a single account. Third is the establishment of the Ministry’s provincial coordination and control system. Based on the Ministry’s unified operational hub, which is deployed at the departmental level, the risk profile is automatically screened, and the management of business operations is effectively achieved. The fourth is to improve access to public services. Under the integrated national model, national standards are harmonized and data are centralized throughout the country, and the participants do not need to distinguish between the period of participation, the place of entry, or the “one-key” to achieve a centralized search of all historical information on social security and to present their own “electronic archives” in real time; when they retire, the social security agencies can provide a unified reminder of the social security contributions that have been omitted from the country's mobility; and further optimize the transfer chain, streamline the transfer process and allow the transfer of inter-provincial social security relationships to be “accelerated again”. At present, the social security system is largely in place, but there are varying levels of coverage at all levels, and regional imbalances remain unresolved. There is a need to further improve the network of social security management services and services at the level of five, to adapt to the needs of mobility and changing identities, to the platform economy and to new employment patterns, to continuously expand the “one network” of social security services, to expand the “one cartoon” application of residential services and to make them information-friendly. First, to improve the national unified social security public service platform; to consolidate the national centralized management base for social security data and to create a system of risk control covering both regulatory and ex post audits. Continuous improvement of the functions of the National Social Security Public Service Platform, with the classification of national and cross-regional services and the promotion of operational synergies, regional collaboration and information-sharing. Second, by the end of June of this year, the number of persons holding social security cards nationwide reached 1.36 billion, covering 96.3 per cent of the population. Of these, 575 million card holders also received electronic social security cards on their mobile phones, allowing them to register for insurance, search for social security benefits and receive pensions, unemployment benefits and work injury Tianjin, etc. The next step will be to actively promote the “full business entry card” in the area of social welfare. Third, the multilevel and multi-pillar social security system is being implemented, and the national centralized occupational injury security information platform has been set up in the initial stages. It has consolidated information systems interfaces between pilot provinces and pilot platform enterprises, supported process processing and data-sharing, and facilitated access to basic benefits for new business practitioners. The development of an individual pension information management service platform is being advanced to provide easy and fast service to participants through interface with eligible commercial banks and financial industry platforms. Fourth, to enhance synergies in data-sharing operations; to upgrade social security information systems at all levels of “technology” to achieve full-process, rule-based, data-storage systems and closed-cycle management. Strengthened data-sharing and data regulation systems, network verification and joint operations, effective wind control capacity, zero risk dynamics in social security information systems, and progress towards a new phase of “big data” development in the “big data” platform. Actively involving new industry practitioners in the insurance scheme What is the coverage of basic pension insurance in our country? What groups of persons are currently largely excluded from basic pension insurance for employees in enterprises? Kim Vigang (Vice-President of the China Social Security Institute and Vice-President of the National Institute of Systems of Zhejiang University): Our basic pension insurance is a statutory social insurance scheme established by the State, which includes basic pension insurance for urban employees and basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents. Under the Social Insurance Act, basic old-age pension insurance for urban workers has the following main characteristics: first, that workers should be covered by basic pension insurance, which is paid jointly by employers and workers; second, that social integration of basic pension insurance is combined with individual accounts, and that the basic old-age pension insurance fund is composed of employer units, individual contributions and government subsidies; third, that employers should pay basic old-age insurance contributions in proportion to the gross salary of their own employees, as determined by the State, to be credited to the basic old-age insurance fund; fourth, that workers should pay basic old-age insurance contributions in proportion to their own wages, as defined by the State, to be credited to the personal accounts; fifth, that self-employed persons who are unemployed, part-time workers who are not covered by basic old-age insurance in the employer, and other flexible employed persons may participate in basic old-age insurance insurance, and that they should be credited to the basic old-age pension insurance fund and to the individual accounts, as defined by the State; and sixth, that the basic old-age pension insurance fund should be underpaid by the Government. In addition, in accordance with the provisions of the Social Insurance Act, the State establishes and improves the new system of social pension insurance for rural and urban residents, in which the new type of social pension insurance for rural areas is combined with individual contributions, collective benefits and government subsidies. Individual contributions are recorded in personal accounts and the benefits consist of basic pensions and personal account pensions, and local governments at all levels can combine social pension insurance for urban residents and new forms of rural social pension insurance. Thus, basic old-age insurance in our country reflects the traditional social solidarity, risk-distribution and security features of social insurance, as well as a sense of self-security and incentives for individual workers or residents. In recent years, as the reform of the country's pension insurance system has deepened, the increase in contributions in the area of basic pension insurance has been increasing and the number of participants has been increasing, and by the end of June this year the number of participants in basic pension insurance had risen to 1.04 billion, or 1,166,000 more than at the end of the previous year, and the participation rate had risen to 95 per cent. Of these, 493 million were insured for basic old-age pension for urban workers, an increase of 124.3 million from the end of the previous year; 547 million were insured for basic old-age pension for urban and rural residents, a decrease of 770,000 from the end of the previous year. This disparity between the number of urban and rural residents and the number of urban employees participating in basic pension insurance reflects the fact that since this year a number of persons who were previously covered by basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents have been transferred to basic pension insurance for urban and rural workers, in line with the trend towards basic pension insurance in the country. Currently, the non-insured basic old-age insurance for employees in enterprises is concentrated mainly on rural workers and new forms of employment, and in the context of rapid industrialization and urbanization, there has been an increasing shift from rural to non-farming industries and towns. In 2021, the total number of peasant workers in the country reached 292 million, of which 121 million were local farmers, representing an increase of 4.1 per cent compared with the previous year; 172 million were out-of-country farmers and 8,000,000 were employed across provinces. However, only some of the rural workers who work in urban areas participate in the basic pension insurance for employees of enterprises, and how the hundreds of millions of rural workers move into rural and urban areas and contribute to the insurance system, in accordance with the law, can be incorporated into the corresponding basic pension insurance system, guaranteeing their rights and interests in mobile employment and participation in the insurance system, is an urgent issue for the country's basic old-age insurance for the current and future period. It is worth mentioning that in recent years, with the rapid development of the new industry, there has also been an increase in the number of practitioners, and according to incomplete statistics, the number of workers using Internet platforms to provide shared services reached 9,000,000 in 2021. At present, because the relationship between workers in the new form of employment and those in the Platform is difficult to define as traditional labour relations, the Platform's enterprises are reluctant to enter into labour contracts with workers in the new form of employment dependent on the Platform and to pay their contributions in accordance with the law. At the same time, new forms of employment have resulted in fewer active participation in basic pension insurance for urban workers, owing to a number of factors, including job insecurity, lower incomes, greater mobility and a weak sense of participation. In July 2021, eight departments, such as the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare and the National Commission for Development and Reform, jointly issued guidelines on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, which require flexible workers to liberalize their residence restrictions on basic pension insurance at their places of employment and to organize flexible employment workers who are not covered by basic pension insurance for workers in urban or rural areas, as required, to participate in basic old-age pension insurance for urban and rural residents, and to urge enterprises to participate in social insurance in accordance with the law, and to direct and support workers in new forms of employment who are not in full compliance with the established conditions of labour relations to participate in social insurance in accordance with their own circumstances, in order to promote the participation of workers in new forms of employment in basic old-age insurance in accordance with the law. As the economy continues to evolve, the forms of employment will become more flexible and diversified, and the total number of flexible workers will continue to grow, such as those in the new industry. Policies on basic old-age insurance will need to be further improved, awareness-raising will be intensified, flexible workers, including those in the new industry, will be actively guided and promoted by the law to participate in the basic old-age insurance for employees in enterprises, and a “safety net” will need to be woven. Transferability of social security for persons employed in the diaspora Facilitator: Please share the typical cases and experiences of the country in improving the registration of social security relations and the transfer of succession measures, and in liberalizing the residence restrictions of flexible workers in their place of employment. Quanzheng (Deputy Director of the Human Resources Research Unit of the Institute of Public Administration and Human Resources of the Centre for Development Studies of the State Council): Since the Party's eighteenth year, the coverage of social security coverage has continued to expand, the country's capacity for national integration has been increasing, and the transfer of social security has continued to benefit more mobile populations, displacing the concerns of more expatriate and flexible workers. In recent years, the system of registration and transfer of social security relations for persons employed abroad has been improving, as has the system of access to basic pension insurance for persons with flexible employment in places of employment. In 2010 and 2016, the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare issued circulars on the issuance of opinions on specific questions on the transfer of the basic pension insurance relationship between urban enterprises and on the transfer of the basic pension insurance relationship between urban enterprises, respectively, regulating issues such as the place of calculation for the same number of years of contributions, the historical legacy of the contribution information, the contribution account for the temporary basic pension insurance, and the one-time payment of the pension insurance contribution to further safeguard the rights and interests of persons in inter-provincial employment in old-age insurance. In 2018, the Central Transfer System of the Basic Old-Age Insurance Fund for Employees in Enterprises was introduced, and in 2019 the National Social Security Public Service platform was launched. At the end of 2020, 31 provinces and Xinjiang Production and Construction Regiments of Xinjiang have achieved provincial integration of basic pension insurance for their employees. In 2021, the Office of the National Institute of Health Insurance and the Office of the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the Interim Scheme for the Transfer of Basic Health Insurance Relationships, which provides for the trans-regional transfer of all categories of the population. In July of the same year, eight departments, such as the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, jointly issued guidance on the protection of the labour security rights and interests of workers in new forms of employment, which makes it clear that workers in new forms of employment may take part in the basic pension insurance for employees of enterprises with flexible employment status, as well as in the basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents. There has been considerable experience in promoting the continuity of social insurance for persons employed abroad and in accelerating the reform of the restrictions on the local integration of persons in flexible employment, which has yielded tangible results. In the first half of this year, the Integrated National Information System on Basic Pension Insurance for Business Employees in the provinces of Anhui, Henan and Hunan became operational. In order to overcome the effects of the epidemic, the departments of social security and information management at all levels in these provinces have completed a series of tasks, including data collation, system adaptation, departmental communication, on-line switching, testing training, and system commissioning, and are now open to all types of social security services, on-line and off-line. The second is to speed up the reform of SWD’s services, which improves the efficiency and quality of social security succession services for off-site workers. For example, in Shenzhen, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, 15-minute social security “services” have been set up, and “one-stop” services have been “on-line” and “one-time” services have been promoted to reduce the burden of social security on the population. Repeated information does not have to be filled out, off-site operations do not have to run, and the time frame for processing it is shorter, making it easier and faster for the public to do so. At the same time, there has been an increase in the dissemination of policies aimed at people who are employed abroad, ranging from “in person” to “in person” to “in person” and “in person” from “in person” to “in person” to “in-home”” to “in-service” to continuously optimize the social security experience of enterprises and the general public, and to promote “understand and calculate” the treatment of social security registration policies. The third is to speed up the removal of restrictions on local employment participation of flexible workers. For example, in 2021, Zhejiang Province issued a circular on improving the participation of flexible employees in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises, opening up the restrictions on the household registration of flexible employees in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees in places of employment, providing for flexible employment within the legal working age for employees of the province, which, on a voluntary basis, may participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises in their personal capacity, subject to individual payment of old-age insurance, in accordance with the provisions of the voluntary principle; flexible employment workers of foreign provinces may participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises in their place of employment after registering their employment in the province; flexible employment workers participate in the basic old-age pension insurance for employees of enterprises, allowing them to choose a contribution base between 60 per cent and 300 per cent of the average wage for employees of full-calibre urban units in the previous year of the province, with a view to making the results of social security reform more equitable and equitable for the benefit of the population. The continuous improvement of the network of five levels of social security management and services, from the central level to the provinces, municipalities, counties and communes (streets), and the finer and more efficient operation of the social security transfer service, have led to a sharp increase in the sense of social security access and well-being of persons employed abroad. Building a unified national social security information platform Facilitator: The National Integrated System of Basic Old-Age Insurance for Employees in Enterprises has been put in place. What next steps should be taken to promote the development of a unified national basic old-age insurance information system and a multi-level social security information platform? Li Changyu (Deputy Researcher, China Institute of Labour and Social Security Sciences): The establishment of a unified national basic pension insurance information system is an important support for the implementation of the integrated national system and marks the beginning of a new phase in the development of social security in China. In accordance with the deployment of the Ministry of Human Rights and Social Welfare, there is an urgent need to improve the stability of the system, as is the case with the integrated national information system. The new system involves data on pension insurance for workers in nearly 500 million urban enterprises, with more frequent cross-sectoral exchanges of information, and the large volume of operations is an important test of the stability of the system. Second, the regular operation of the short-term component has been affected, most of it by the personalization of social security operations in various regions, as in the case of the new system currently in operation in Henan, which does not support the retirement of multi-participating participants, the trans-institutionalization of insurance units in the provinces and municipalities, and more than 20 operations. Third, there is a need to develop integrated social security information planning and, in recent years, the provinces of Guangdong, Qinghai and Jiangsu have invested considerable human and material resources in the development of a province-wide integrated human society system, which has been fully operational, process-wide and integrated throughout the province. Since the new system is intended only as a platform for the operation of a single insurance scheme for urban enterprises, there is a long-term need to address the problems of central and local information system integration, to better respond to the needs of the population in terms of rural-urban and inter-regional mobility and identity changes, and to provide the support for national harmonization, regional integration, simplification of norms and easy and rapid informationization. The development of a unified national social security information platform is key to the modernization of the social security governance system and its capacity for governance, and further improvements are needed in the five-tier social security management service system and network of services, focusing on improving the level of sophistication and services, adapting them to the needs of mobility and identity changes, and better safeguarding the implementation of social security systems. First, the development of a unified national social security information system, taking into account the operational characteristics of the various types of social security insurance, and taking into account the development of existing social security information systems in all regions, is being studied. It is proposed to move forward in three phases: first, to extend the functions of the existing integrated national information system on basic pension insurance for employees of existing enterprises to urban and rural residents, institutions, etc., and to address the root causes of the problems of re-entry into basic old-age insurance; second, to build a unified national information management system for employment injury insurance, unemployment insurance and its integration into the basic old-age insurance system, thereby creating a unified information management platform for the social security sector throughout the country; and, lastly, to establish, through a mechanism of information-sharing between the public administration and, through the application of data, interconnectivity between the human and social services and the relevant operational sectors, such as the National Health Insurance Institute, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the Ministry of Former Military Affairs, a single national social security information platform covering social insurance, social assistance, social welfare and social welfare benefits, as well as social welfare benefits; and, finally, to achieve a genuine “one-wind” service and a “one-stop shop” of public social security services. Second, to accelerate the process of standardizing and standardizing social security, which is the foundation and entry point for information-based construction, the development of a unified national social security information system needs to be standardized. In this regard, the national unified health-care information platform, which is fully operational, provides lessons learned. On the one hand, it is proposed to establish a broad system of standards such as basic social security data standards, work standards, public service standards, evaluation and monitoring standards, and to create “common languages” that are shared, standardized and interchangeable, such as basic operating standards for social security, operating agencies and personnel standards, standards for the flow of services, standards for the interaction of information, etc. On the other hand, it is recommended that, on the basis of improved social security policies, the standardization of social security business processes, information-sharing and operational synergies be promoted as soon as possible, as well as the harmonization of key national social security business processes, such as contributions to insurance, collection of fees, distribution of entitlements, fund supervision, access to equity records, etc., as well as cross-sectoral, cross-level and cross-regional information-sharing mechanisms. Third, to enhance the application of the system and to help with the fine-tuning of social security management, the National Unified Social Security Information System (NSIS) was built to address the need of the population to facilitate the provision of social security services by re-entering, transferring and enhancing the Fund's resilience to risk, improving the accessibility and equalization of social security services. It is recommended to strengthen the application of information systems to optimize social security business processes and to promote non-discrimination in social security operations; to actively promote cross-practice, cross-level, cross-sectoral information-sharing and operational synergies in the human resources social security sector; and to use data to assess the performance of the system and to protect against fund risks. Cross-sectoral sharing is achieved at the local level by cross-practice sharing within the social security sector of human resources, using national data and cross-sectoral sharing interfaces such as social security card holders, employment, social security, etc., which brings together ministerial departments to achieve cross-level and cross-sectoral sharing of matching; strengthening the intellectualization, fast-tracking of services and precision in management of the social security services, regulating the various existing local social services platforms, gradually establishing more specialized, simple operating processes and user-friendly online service windows, and making the social security services “stand-by” “stand-as-you-go” as soon as possible. (Responsible Editor: Wang Jin-woo)

Note: This is a translated version of the Chinese news media article. A mature and nuanced reading is suggested.

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