Xie Fusheng, Kuang Xiaolu, Zhao Min: The theoretical creation of Marxist political economy in the 100-year history of the Communist Party of China
2022-08-08: [Article Link] Chinese Communist Party 100-year-old economic ideology
Marxist Political Economics
Marxism is a source of theory for the Chinese Communist Party’s 100-year-old economic ideology. In the mid-19th century, when capitalism expanded worldwide and was associated with backward social patterns in a mixed social formation, the socialist practice of the country followed continued to evolve, creating new problems that were not foreseen in Marxist classics. In its 100-year history, the Communist Party of China has independently and autonomously applied Marxist positions, views and methods, taking into account China's specific realities, accurately grasping the basic and main contradictions of society, and defining the historical dimensions of China's social development, thus forming the historical typologies of China's identity; on this basis, China's new path to modernity has been created through the integration of two major national and international bureaux, the formulation of strategies and policies for building its domestic economy and dealing with international economic relations, the construction of a socialist economy characterized by China and the relations of socialism with the world's capitalist economy characterized by China. The Chinese Communist Party’s theoretical creation of Marxist political economics has been characterized by a gradual and consistent convergence. Since the Party’s eighteenth year, Xi Jinping’s Secretary-General has discussed the construction of a socialist economy characterized by China’s 100 years of economic thinking. Keys: Centennial economic thinking, theoretical creation, Marxist political economics.
The 100-year-old economic philosophy of the Chinese Communist Party has been shaped by the close association of Marxist fundamentals with China's actual reality, which in turn has become an ideological weapon to guide China's practice and has enriched and developed in its insistence on truth, correcting mistakes and constantly innovating, constantly pushing Marxist China forward. The General Secretary Xi said that “the vitality of theory lies in innovation” and that “the history of our party is a history of advancing Marxism’s Chinaization, a history of advancing theoretical innovation and its creation. Among them, “theoretical innovation” is a solution to China's real problems by absorbing, transforming and innovating valuable elements of Marxist political economics, economic ideas and traditional Chinese culture, while “theoretical creation” is a response to the discovery and creative use of new ideas in Marxist classic texts, as well as to the original innovation of Marxist political economics in the light of China's actual or contemporary world development realities (Chailian, 2021), which solves problems that Marxist classic writers have neither spoken nor encountered. The articulation of the Communist Party’s theoretical creation of Marxist political economics is an important prerequisite and task to guide China’s characteristic socialist practice and to continuously promote the formation of new theoretical outcomes and the construction of a system of socialist political economics of Chinese identity. It is important to continue to open up the new horizon of contemporary Marxist political economics and to contribute China’s wisdom to the innovative development of Marxist political economics. The literature has studied the 100-year-old economic thinking of the Communist Party of China in a number of ways and has produced rich theoretical results that are of great benefit to this paper. First, the economic thinking of the Communist Party of China during the neo-democratic revolution, during the socialist revolution and construction, during the construction of the reform of the opening and modernization of the socialist era, and since the Party's eighteenth anniversary, the new era of the socialist character of China (Cao Hailian, 2021; Hong Qinghing, 2021; Zhang Lei, 2021) was reviewed in detail; second, the need, methodology, concrete content and important issues facing the Communist Party's ability to continuously innovate and create economic theory were summarized (Cao Hailian, 2021; Jane Xinhua, 2021; Bai Changhong and Peng Xiao, 2021); third, the focus was on innovation and development in different areas of the Communist Party's economic thinking, studying socialist economic development theory, distribution theory, common wealth theory, etc. (Jinhua and Niang, 2021; Pong Soo and others, 2021; Xiang, 2021). Based on the Marxist classics and the Chinese Communist Party's 100-year economic philosophy, the present paper presents a mixed social pattern of the expanding and “connection” of the social and economic order of capitalism in the mid-1900s with backward social patterns throughout the world, on the basis of which the socialist practices of the backward countries have evolved, creating a series of new problems not foreseen by the Marxist classic theory. The Communist Party of China is using Marxist positions, views and methods independently and autonomously to resolve the real situation in China, to judge the historical location of the party and the people's cause correctly, to take control of the two major international and domestic agendas, to formulate the right course, guidelines and policies, and to create the theoretical creation of the three main systems. First, the historical orientation of China’s identity is at the heart of the creation of three major theories. The Communist Party of China has created basic contradictions and major contradictions analysis, which are used to determine the nature of social patterns and the stage of social development. Second, China’s characteristic socialist economic construction theory. Based on the historical context of social development, and based on a clear identification of the main social contradictions, the Communist Party of China has creatively opened up a model of economic development “from nothing to nothing, from beauty to excellence, from excellence to fineness.” Third, China’s characteristic theory of socialism and world capitalism’s economic relations. At different historical stages, China’s economic relations with world capitalism have been accurately analysed, taking into account the historical location of social development and the need for domestic economic construction. I. From semi-colonial semi-enclaved society to China’s special socialism: the historical orientation of Chinese identity
History is the place, stage or state of objective things in historical development, and the historical location of a social development should include the specific historical stage in which the nature of the society's form is clearly defined and that of social development under the same social form, which is a sine qua non for Marxists to reveal the pattern of social movement. The Marxist theory of the social shape and stage of development explains the general pattern of social development of the human economy and reveals the pattern of development of the capitalist society, but does not provide theoretical methods for determining the nature of the mixed social pattern and the stage of socialist social development. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has created and developed basic contradictions and major contradictions based on historical and contradictory analysis. It has creatively resolved the problem of judging the nature of the social shape of a backward country and the stage of social development of a socialist country. It constitutes the historical typologies of Chinese identity. (i) The theoretical sources and necessity of historical axioms of Chinese identity: Marxist social patterns, stage-of-development theory and Chinese reality
The social-morphological development of the human economy is a natural historical process, and Marxist social-morphological theory provides two ways of delineating social patterns. The first is “three social patterns, say,” which, according to the state of human development, distinguish the great historical era of social patterns from the three forms of “dependency of the human person” and “full development and liberal personality of the individual.” The second is “five social patterns”, according to the special nature of production methods, “the workers and the means of production... combine special ways and methods to distinguish the social fabric from the different economic periods”, the Marx proposes “eras in which the production of sub-Saharan, ancient Greek Rome, feudal and modern bourgeois classes can be seen as the evolution of the social shape of the economy” and the other five social patterns, such as the original clan society, the ancient slavery society, the medieval serfdom society, the recent hiring labour society, the future communist society,5 which some Marxists later consider to be the general pattern of the evolution of the social shape of the human race. After Marx, Marxists divided capitalist social patterns into stages of development based on different criteria. Lenin, for example, distinguishes capitalist production from free competition, private monopolization and State monopolization; regulatory schools distinguish capitalist production from external accumulation systems according to the different characteristics of production and consumption at different historical stages of the capitalist accumulation system, from those without mass consumption, from those with mass consumption, from those with mass consumption, and from those with large individualized consumption; and the accumulated social structure (SSA) schools divide capitalist capitalist into major commercialist, liberal, imperialist and consumerist stages, depending on the dominant use value production patterns. However, Marxist social formation and developmental phase theories cannot be used directly to judge the historical dimensions of social development in countries that are lagging behind. Traditional Marxist social morphological theories typically ignore the theoretical link between “three social forms” and “five social forms” and interpret the development of human economic and social forms as “one-line” models, considering that Western Europe’s historical development model is universal and does not correspond to the true thinking of Marx (Meloti, 1981). The development of the economic and social shape of humankind, combined with the “one-dimensional and multi-dimensional” characteristic of historical unity and spatial diversity (Melloti, 1981), that is, that social patterns have evolved over time through the “three main social patterns” in which different social patterns coexist in space as “five social forms”. The development of social patterns is spatially uneven, with some developing into a capitalist society, while others are feudal, while capitalist social patterns, as an expanding socio-economic order, “open the world market and make the production and consumption of all nations world-wide”. Marx's study of British colonization of India illustrated how the worldwide expansion of capitalist production methods “destroyed local communes, destroyed local industries, levelled everything great and prominent in local society”, “damaged the entire fabric of Indian society”, and did not further analyse how the expansion of capitalist production methods changed the nature of the social shape of backward countries. Torotsky pointed out that “the unified process of world capitalist development....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... As a result of the invasion of imperial powers, China is in a mixed social pattern in recent times, and how to judge the nature of the recent Chinese social pattern is the first issue to be resolved by the Communist Party of China during the period of the revolutionary war. At the same time, the Marxist development phase theory does not provide uniform theoretical criteria for determining the different stages of development of the same society. How to understand the stage of social development in a country that lags behind is another major issue that the Communist Party of China needs to answer. (ii) Development of the historical geography of China's identity: the basic and main methods of analysis of the Chinese Communist Party and its development
In the aftermath of the opium war of 1840, with the invasion of imperial powers and foreign capital imports, the nature of Chinese society has changed profoundly. How to understand the nature of Chinese social patterns is the first question to be answered in order to give direction to the revolution. Some Chinese intellectuals have developed the Trotsky view that the imperial invasion broke the feudal system, subjugated the feudal forces, facilitated China's entry into capitalist society and produced false ideas such as “elimination of the revolutionary mission of the Chinese anti-imperialist anti-economy”; others, through social surveys and analysis of the economic nature of the countryside, correctly realized that China is semi-colonial and semi-consumptive, but lacked a theory to judge the morphological nature of society (Shepbook, 1987; Wu Wai-yung and Liu Yan, 2013). The publication of Mao Zedong's " paradox " in 1937 marked the creation of the Chinese Communist Party's basic contradictions and the main methods of analysing them, providing the rationale for the analysis of the morphological nature of Chinese society and providing the theoretical basis for the historical typologies of Chinese identity. Mao pointed out that “a contradiction exists in the course of everything” and that “a big thing, in the course of its development, contains many contradictions.” The basic contradiction runs through the course of things, defining the very nature of the process, which “cannot be eliminated until the end of the process” (11) the basic contradiction is resolved, and the whole process of development ends, and the fundamental nature of the matter changes radically. The basic contradiction takes the form of “a gradual development at all stages of development” and “procedurality becomes apparent.” (12) There are many contradictions in the development of the same matter, the main one being the contradiction of the role of leadership and decision-making, the change of which distinguishes the different stages of the development of the matter and is influenced by basic contradictions. The basic contradictions in society can be resolved gradually only through the resolution of major contradictions at all stages, which are uneven and inevitably have major and secondary aspects. The main aspect of the contradiction is the dominant one, which determines the nature of the matter, while “the main and non-main aspects of the conflict are transformed from one another and the nature of the thing changes with the next”, and “when the new party has gained a dominant position over the old, the nature of the old thing changes to the nature of the new thing”. (13) Based on the theoretical basis of basic contradictions and the main methods of analysing them, basic contradictions are used to determine the nature of social patterns, and major contradictions are used to determine the stage of social development, which has initially shaped the historical typologies of Chinese identity. The Communist Party of China (CPC), represented by Mao Zedong, correctly understood the nature of recent Chinese social patterns and revolutionary tasks using basic conflict analysis. While “destroying the foundations of China's self-sufficient natural economy and destroying urban handicrafts and the cottage industries of farmers... have contributed to the development of China's urban and rural commodity economy”, “collaborating with China's feudal forces to suppress the development of China's capitalism” “has turned China into their semi-colonial and colonial colonies”. (14) The basic contradiction of recent Chinese society is that of “imperialistism and the Chinese nation, feudalism and the popularity of the people”, and the nature of the social pattern is semi-colonial semi-confessional. “The struggle of these contradictions and their sharpening cannot but create an ever-growing revolutionary movement”, (15) and that the revolution is a two-step process. The first step is the neo-democratic revolution, which aims to change the semi-colonial semi-confessional social pattern and to overthrow the three great mountains of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism. The second step was to move the revolution forward and build a socialist society. The Chinese Communist Party, including Mao, judged the Chinese revolution at the time to be the first step and, on that basis, formulated a basic programme of neo-democraticism, led China’s neo-democratic revolution to triumph, overthrowed imperial and feudal rule, and established the People’s Republic of China. Since the establishment of the new China, and with the establishment of the basic system of socialism in 1956, the question of how to judge the stage of development of socialism in China is paramount in the light of the main contradictions in society. “Inadequate experience in the construction of socialism and lack of awareness of economic development patterns and the basics of China's economy”, (16) The Chinese Communist Party's understanding of the main contradictions following China's entry into the socialist society has been actively explored. After the reform and opening up, the Communist Party of China, represented by Deng Xiaoping, correctly understood the main contradictions in Chinese society, proposed the concept of the initial stage of socialism and developed the historical equation of Chinese identity in three ways. First, it is clear that the development of the socialist society is phased. (17) As far as social development is concerned, “socialism itself is the initial stage of communism, and we in China are in the early stages of socialism, the stage of underdevelopment”. (18) Secondly, distinguishing between the basic contradictions and the main contradictions of the early stages of socialism, Deng Xiaoping pointed out that “the consolidation and development of the socialist system will require a long historical period, requiring us to work tirelessly for generations, generations or even generations” (19), indicating that the early stages of socialism will last for a very long time, so there will also be fundamental contradictions and major contradictions in the early stages of socialism, while “class struggles will persist over a certain period of time, but are no longer the main contradictions”. (20) Third, it clarifies the specifics of the main contradictions in the early stages of socialism, the fundamental purpose of which is to serve the people with the full intent of the Communist Party of China, which determines the initial stages of socialism. The main contradictions are subject to the basic contradictions, which are manifested in the contradiction between the needs of the people and the production of society. Since the Party's eighteenth birthday, the Communist Party of China, represented by Xi Jinping, has further clarified that the main contradiction between the initial stages of socialism is movement and development, so that the initial stages of socialism are also phased and the concept of a new stage of development has been developed, perfecting the historical typologies of Chinese identity. “The basic contradictions of society are constantly evolving” and the main contradiction of society is that they change accordingly, “the adjustment of productive relations and the improvement of superstructures need to continue accordingly”. (21) But the main contradictory shift “does not change our judgement about the historical stage of socialism in our country, which remains, and will remain, in the early stages of socialism”. (22) “The initial stage of socialism is not a static, static, stagnating phase, nor is it a stage that can be crossed spontaneously, passively, without the need for extra atmospheric energy, but rather a dynamic, dynamic, dynamic and always dynamic process, a process of step-by-step evolution, progressive development, accumulation of increasingly proximate qualitative leaps and changes in development”, while the new stage of development is “a stage in the initial phase of socialism”. (iii) Application of the historical orientation of China's identity: the historical orientation of China's social development since the establishment of New China
After the triumph of the neo-democratic revolution, China experienced successive periods of neo-democratic economic construction and national economic recovery (1949-1952) and a transitional period of socialist transformation (1953-1956). Before and after the establishment of the new China, central leaders such as Mao Zedong correctly realized that the basic contradiction between the production relations and productivity development of the old Chinese society remained the “revolutionary mission of neo-democraticism” and proposed that “domestically, it is to eliminate exploitation and oppression of the landlord and bureaucratic asset classes (large asset classes), to change the feudal production relations that have been bought, and to liberate the constrained productivity” (24) to establish a neo-democratic economic system. During this period, it will be necessary to recognize the two-faced nature of the national bourgeois, take full advantage of its positive role, rapidly restore the national economy, achieve greater productivity in China, “take a comfortable and proper step into a new era of socialism after the country's economic and cultural causes have flourished and after conditions have been met”. (25) Between 1949 and 1952, the Communist Party of China (CPC) led the people in the completion of land reform and the total elimination of feudal land ownership. Under the socialist State economy, the semi-social cooperative economy, the private capitalist economy, the individual economy, the capital of the State, the capital of the State, the capital of the State, and the capital of the private capital, worked together in the division of economic components, each with an increase in the share of industry and an increase in the composition of the State economy, which, by the end of 1952, had achieved a historic victory in the restoration of the national economy. Based on the favourable situation of “the consolidation and expansion of the democratic camp for world peace” and “the social transformations that have been largely completed” in the country, “the weight of the socialist component increases day by day, the leadership of the state economy increases day by day”, (26) as well as the “increasing conflict of interest” between capitalist businesses and the country's citizens and the objective requirements of “socialized industrialization of the country”, (27) in June 1953, Mao clarified “the party's overall course and overall mission during the transition period, which was to essentially complete the country's industrialization and the socialist transformation of the agricultural, handicraft, capitalist and business sectors in 10 to 15 years or more”, (28) the transition period for the transformation of socialism was officially opened. The fundamental contradiction in China's society during the transition period has been transformed into a contradiction between the proletarian and bourgeois classes, with a fundamental transformation in the nature of the revolution, whose mission is “to transform bourgeois ownership and transform the small private system that gives rise to the roots of capitalism” (29) “to make the socialist ownership of productive resources the sole economic basis of our State and society. (30) In the light of China's specific situation, the Communist Party of China has creatively used “the form of State capitalism and the policy of peaceful foreclosure to transform capitalist businesses, to transform individual agriculture and artisanal industries in the form of a gradual transition, to continue to develop social productivity during the socialist transformation process and to raise the standard of living of the general population”. (31) By 1956, the Party Centre declared that “the conflict between our proletarian and bourgeois classes has been largely resolved”, “the socialist social system has been largely established in our country” and (32) marked China's entry into socialist society. After entering the socialist society, the Party's eight resolutions of 1956 correctly recognized the main contradiction of the society at that time “is already the contradiction between the people's need for rapid economic and cultural development and the current situation in which the economic and cultural culture does not meet the needs of the people”. (33) The eight resolutions of the party, however, describe the main contradictions in substance “in theory, there are imperfections” and (34) do not state that although “socialist productive relations have been established”, “it is, however, far from perfect, and these imperfect aspects and the development of productivity are contradictory”. (35) At its eighth and second sessions, the party proposed that “the struggle of the proletarian class against the bourgeois class, the struggle of the socialist path against the capitalist path, was always the main contradiction within the country until the socialist society was established”. (36) This has led to the “expansion and absoluteization of class struggles that exist in certain areas of socialist society” (37), which has led the Communist Party of China in its subsequent economic construction to fail to follow the rules of socio-economic development and try to go beyond the stage of development. After the reform and opening up, the Communist Party of China reflected on the historical location of Chinese society and judged that China was in the early stages of socialism by accurately grasping basic and major contradictions. Deng Xiaoping pointed out that the basic contradictions in the early stages of socialism “remain the contradiction between productive relations and productivity, between the upper buildings and the economic base”, but that “the identification of these fundamental contradictions does not solve the problem completely and requires in-depth and specific research in this regard. (38) The initial phase of socialism, “departed from semi-colonial semi-consumption societies”, is still in a “materially dependent society” and is a “specific phase in which socialism is built in a context of low productivity and underdeveloped commodity economies”, “in contrast to the transitional period on which the socialist economic base has not been laid and to the stage of modernization of the socialist economy”, (39) in keeping with the norms of socio-economic development, the reform of the economic system, “freezing productivity, developing productivity, eliminating exploitation, eliminating polarization and eventually achieving common wealth”, while maintaining party leadership and the socialist system. (40) In the early stages of socialism, there are old ways of speaking only of socialism, not of closed rigidity in the early stages, and in the market economy, not of socialism, which are easy to change. The existence of both paths changes the nature of our society, so that is the basic contradiction in the early stages of socialism. The Party's 13th Congress stated that “the main contradiction we face at this stage is between the growing material and cultural needs of our people and the backward production of our societies”, and that the solution of the main contradiction is an investment in the resolution of other conflicts. “In order to resolve the main contradiction at this stage, it is necessary to develop the commodity economy vigorously, increase labour productivity, gradually modernize industry, agriculture, defence and science and technology and, to that end, to reform production relations and the parts of the upper buildings that are not adapted to productivity development. Since the Party's eighteenth anniversary, and with the transformation of the main contradictions, “China-specific socialism has entered a new era” (42) and “after the full creation of a small and prosperous society and the achievement of the goals of the first century of struggle, we have taken the lead in launching a new journey towards the full construction of a modern socialist State and moving towards the goal of the second century, which marks a new stage of development for our country”. (43) While the basic state of the country has not changed in the early stages of socialism, and the fundamental nature of the basic contradictions in society has not changed, “the main social contradictions have translated into a conflict between the growing needs of the people for a better life and inadequate and uneven development”. (44) Under the new development phase, China's task is to complete the construction of a modern socialist State with Chinese characteristics and in line with China's reality. “It is a modernization of the size of the population, a modernization of the common wealth of the entire population, a modernization of material and spiritual civilization in harmony, a modernization of human beings living in harmony with nature and a modernization of the path to peaceful development. II. From industrialization to modernization: the socialist economic construction theory of China's characteristics
Since the establishment of the new China, and based on the historical orientation of China's identity, the Communist Party of China has been engaged in the task of building a socialist economy. It is committed to resolving the main contradictions between different historical locations. In practice, it has answered the question of the continued and effective development of the economy of a backward country that has not been resolved by Marxist classic writers. It has created a socialist model of economic development, “from nothing to nothing, from good to good, from excellent to fine”, which has led to the construction of an independent industrial system, the socialist market economy theory and the theory of high-quality development, which together constitute the construction of a socialist economy in China. (i) Theoretical dilemma in the construction of the socialist economy of the backward State
Marx and Engels revealed the economic dynamics of the capitalist society, suggesting that socialism and communism are inevitable trends, but because of historical and practical limitations, they did not and could not study in depth the question of how to build a socialist economy and make it sustainable and effective (Simple Xinhua and Niang, 2021). The initial idea of Marx and Engels is that, on the basis of the great productivity development of the capitalist society, “the proletarian class will take advantage of its own political domination, step by step, to seize the entire capital of the bourgeois class, to concentrate all the means of production in the hands of the State, the organization, to become the proletarian class of the ruling class, and to increase overall productivity as quickly as possible”. (46) For a backward country like China, however, the socialist society has emerged from a semi-colonial semi-colonial society characterized by the smallholder economy, without major productivity development under capitalist production, and how can the socialist economy be built on the basis of a backward agricultural country? Although Max pointed out that “it can draw on all the positive results of the capitalist system rather than through the Kafdin Gorge”, (47) he did not answer the question of how to do it. Lenin has also pointed out that no one has yet answered “what practical difficulties the working class, which has taken over power, would encounter in order to achieve economic and social development by replicating the history of the capitalist nation's plundering and colonization abroad, when it begins to transform all the rich and historically necessary cultures, knowledge and technology from the instruments of capitalism into the instruments of socialism.” (48) Lenin and Stalin led the Soviet people to establish the world's first socialist State in practice, to complete the industrialization of the socialist State, to lay the material foundation for the construction of the socialist economy and to develop socialist economic construction theory. Lenin and Stalin made it clear that the prerequisite for the economic development of socialist countries is industrialization, “socialism can only be based on large machine industries that can also transform agriculture”, (49) and “the centre of industrialization, which is based on the development of heavy industries (fuels, metals, etc.) and, in the final analysis, on the development of the production of productive resources and the development of the domestic machinery manufacturing industry”, (50) in order to preserve the country's independence. How can socialist industrialization be achieved on a poor basis? Lenin and Stalin led the peoples of the Soviet Union out of “a path of socialist accumulation through domestic savings for industrial development” (51) to establish an independent, strong industrial system. However, with the collapse of the transition to a market economy in the 1990s, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the radical transformation of Eastern Europe, which put an end to the process of building the socialist economy of the Soviet Union, the Soviet model still failed to answer the question of how to achieve the sustainable development of the socialist economy. As Deng Xiaoping has said, “Changing China into a modern socialist State” is a “new enterprise,” as Max has not said, as our predecessors have not done, nor have other socialist countries, so there is no ready experience to learn. We can only do it in the middle school, in practice. (52) With its experience of building a socialist economy over 70 years after the establishment of the new China, China has answered the question of how the backward socialist State can continue to develop its economy effectively, adapting the core tasks of building a socialist economy in accordance with the main contradictions between different historical locations, and pursuing a path of development that is “from nothing to nothing, from good to good, from excellent to fine”, thus creating the socialist economic construction theory that is characteristic of China. China's development experience “expands the path of modernization in developing countries, offers new choices to countries and peoples in the world that wish to accelerate development and maintain their independence, and contributes China's wisdom and China's programmes to solving human problems. (ii) “From nothing” - laying the foundations for the construction of a socialist economy: the idea of an independent industrial system
During the period of the socialist revolution and construction, and in the face of the contradiction between the need to establish an advanced industrial State and the reality of a backward agricultural State, the Communist Party of China used the planned economic system to prioritize industrial development as a development strategy, using the intervention of the State and the Government as a basic means of guaranteeing the mechanisms of agricultural support for industry, establishing an independent and more complete industrial system from 0 to 1 sites, establishing a material basis for the construction of a socialist economy and forming an independent industrial system. Marx has revealed the progressive significance of modern production in developing the productivity of social work through the creation of a collaborative human labour system of a certain scale, free from the physical constraints of individual labour. As technology evolves, labour information has undergone various patterns, with automatic machinery as its final form, and the development of a machine-cooperative labour system, which only “mechanical production” enables large industries to acquire “the technological basis for themselves” and “to become self-reliant”. (54) At the same time, as backward countries develop their economies, the distorting effects of market imperfections accumulate through demand linkages, resulting in the upstream industrial sector becoming the intersection of deficiencies and having the largest distorting effects (Liu, 2019). This suggests that the condition for the development of modern production in the backward countries to overcome the limitations of small production methods is the establishment of an industrial system and the priority given to the development of heavy industry, with the intervention of the State and the Government, in order to lay the material foundation for economic development. As early as the revolution, the Communist Party of China recognized “the reasons for China's backwardness, mainly the absence of new industries” and “the need to industrialization if China's national independence is to be firmly guaranteed”. (55) With the establishment of the People's Republic of China, China has achieved national independence, national unity and the liberation of its people, providing fundamental social conditions for the establishment of an industrial system. In the early days of the establishment of the new China, the Communist Party of China established a priority strategy for the development of heavy industry, focusing “on the systematic rehabilitation and development of heavy industry” and “on the basis of the country's industrialization. At the same time, production in the textile industry and other light industries benefiting the population should be resumed and increased in order to meet the daily consumption needs of the population, “promptly rehabilitate and gradually build additional railways and roads, dredged rivers, promoted water transport, improved and developed postal and telecommunications services, and systematically built various means of transport and civil aviation. However, agricultural countries are facing difficulties in developing heavy industries in poor and backward countries. The war has devastated China's heavy industry, with huge investments in heavy industry, long construction cycles and slow capital flows. Private capital “always seeks special conditions for its own value addition, while imposing common conditions on the entire country as a national need” (57) In the new China, where goods and technology are scarce, industrialization can only be led by the State, “a systematic solution to the country's industrialization problems”. China has gradually established an autonomous industrial system from 0 to 1 under the leadership of the State and the Government. Since the process of industrialization was not replicable and the establishment of an industrial system required the assistance of previous generations in terms of technology and talent, Mao had envisaged, prior to his establishment, economic cooperation between China and the United States — China's export of industrial raw materials and agricultural products to the United States in exchange for investment in heavy industrial products and enterprises of the United States (Tung ZhiKai et al., 1993), but the post-war international situation had prevented the realization of the plan. In the early days of the establishment of the new China, China formulated guidelines for the economic construction of capital and technology from the Soviet Union in an equitable and mutually beneficial manner. The “156” construction plans were gradually defined during the period of the Five-Year Plan. In order to carry out industrial construction under extremely difficult economic conditions, China has studied and implemented a Soviet-style planned economic system. Planning institutions have been set up to formulate economic development strategies and development plans, formulate industrial and price policies, monitor and regulate the functioning of the national economy, balance the economy's aggregates, optimize major economic structures, organize major State construction projects, etc. (Tung Zhikay, 2003). At the same time, changes in agricultural transformation and governance patterns led by thorough land reform have also ensured mechanisms for agricultural support for industrial development (Sun Lokqiang, 2021). From 1952 to 1966, the new China concentrated its efforts on large-scale industrial construction, guaranteed by the planned economic system. The “156” constructions assisted by the Soviet Union were accompanied by more than 1,000 construction projects that China had completed on its own. In the process, the Communist Party of China did not fully replicate the Soviet model, but rather integrated important points of balance and balance in accordance with China's national circumstances. Overall, the planned economic period was characterized by “a significant achievement in industrial construction, the gradual establishment of an independent and more complete industrial system and a national economic system”, a significant increase in industrial capital investment and production of industrial goods, the “building of new industrial bases in vast hinterlands and ethnic minority areas”, the “progressive construction of the defence industry from scratch”, the “development of resources exploration, railways, roads, water, air transport and postal services, all of which have developed considerably”, and (59) the “non-existent” construction of the material base for the socialist economy. (iii) “From got to good” - “Engine” to kick-start socialist economic growth: socialist market economy theory
The reform of the new era of openness and socialist modernization, in the face of the conflict between the growing material and cultural needs of the people and the backward production of society, the planned economic system has curbed the release of potential productive capacities. Through progressive reforms, the Communist Party of China has created a socialist market economy that has stimulated the internal dynamics of economic growth and launched an “engine” for rapid growth of the socialist economy. The establishment of a complete industrial system in countries lagging behind, using the planned economic system, is a fundamental prerequisite for the rapid transformation of investment into productive capacity, and once the industrial system is in place, how to stimulate the dynamism of economic agents and mobilize the internal dynamics of economic growth becomes the primary issue in the construction of a socialist economy. As Max put it, “the conditions that were initially expressed as capital creation” are “not yet produced from capital as an activity of capital”, but when these conditions are met, “the capital, in order to be created, is no longer offered, it is in itself a prerequisite, and it creates its own premises for conservation and enrichment from its own point of view”. (60) China's socialist economy has emerged from the backward small-scale farmers' economy and, in view of the time-consuming development of human economic and social patterns, China's special socialism is still at the “reliance stage”, indicating that China should use the useful experience of modern production to give the economy a dynamic of internal growth and speed up the cycle of economic growth by introducing market-regulating mechanisms; from the spatial development of human economic and social patterns, the special socialism of China is different from both a capitalist society with a private system of production resources and from an ideal communist society with a view to eliminating the commodity economy, indicating that the State and the Government can neither withdraw fully from it nor become a major contributor to it, but should intervene in the economy in a manner consistent with market rules while actively formulating policies to guide economic development. At the end of the 1970s, the Communist Party of China recognized that there were limitations to the development of the socialist economy, which was limited by the real level of productivity development and was fully guided by the principle of “systematic pro rata”, and that “market regulation was limited, and plans were limited to planning figures for major road goods and varieties, so that production could not be enriched and the people’s needs for daily goods were very monolithic” (61), resulting in the inability to release the productive capacity of the industrial system. Central leaders, with Deng Xiaoping at their core, based on the historical location of the early stages of socialism and their judgement of the main contradictions in society, creatively put forward the idea that socialism is not equivalent to planned economy, that market economies are not equal to capitalism, and that it is a combination of socialism and market economy, breaking the Soviet model of “public system plus planned economy”. Deng Xiaoping pointed out that “the modern methods of operation, management and development of science in capitalist countries should be inherited” and that “the planned economy should be dominated by a market economy, but it is a socialist market economy”. In order to unleash the dynamism of economic growth, the socialist market economy reform “has been planned and carried out in an orderly manner under the leadership of the party and the Government” (63) has moved from rural to urban areas, moving from one level to another, gradually deepening, expanding and strengthening the role of market regulation, resolving the conflicting demands and supply in the economy, and making China the only country that has succeeded in moving from a planned economic system to a socialist market economy. The creation of a socialist market economy has triggered economic growth in four ways: first, the basic economic system, dominated by public ownership and co-development of a multi-owned economy, has created a competitive structure for enterprises that are conducive to economic growth. With the establishment of a dominant, multi-owned economic co-development approach, State-owned enterprises have gradually withdrawn from areas where they do not have a competitive advantage, through “catch-and-down” reforms, increasing the impact of scale in areas where there is a competitive advantage and national base. Private enterprises have made full use of their advantages, filling the gap in the area of withdrawal of State-owned enterprises and forming a vertical industrial structure of highly collaborative State-owned enterprises, private enterprises. Second, the macro-regulatory framework of the socialist market-economy system provides the institutional basis for economic growth. China has moved ahead with institutional reforms such as fiscal, financial, foreign trade, foreign exchange, planning, investment, prices, circulation, housing, and social security. (64) Third, the distribution system, which is distributed as a body of labour, and which coexists in a variety of ways, motivates the various economic actors: “to combine the distribution of labour, labour gains, with allowing and encouraging the participation of factors of production, such as capital and technology, in the distribution of income, in order to maintain efficiency priorities and balance equity”, “to allow a segment of the population in a part of the region to be enriched first, to drive and help them to prosper and gradually move towards shared wealth”. (65) Fourth, China’s adherence to and improvement of its opening up to the outside world has enabled China to seize the opportunity to achieve high economic growth in its integration into the global production network. By the end of 2001, accession to the WTO had marked “a greater and deeper participation in the globalization of the economy and a new phase in its opening up to the outside world.” (66) China’s downstream processing manufacturing enterprises are integrated into the global production network by producing modular components. Under the market economy system and the industrial base, investment in the manufacturing sector can rapidly translate into productive capacity. This has led to overall economic growth through the vertical industrial structure of State-owned enterprises, attracting large numbers of surplus rural labour to transfer employment, stimulating the process of urbanization, stimulating housing, car demand and capital investment, and opening a period of gold growth in China’s economy. In general, the creation of a socialist market economy has created “good institutional conditions for modernization, opening up vast market demand and sources of finance, and further developing the new creative dynamism of hundreds of millions of people”, and (67) the “engine” of socialist economic growth was launched “from the right to the right”. (iv) “From excellence to fine” - towards a socialist approach to economic development: Quality development theory
Since the Party's eighteenth anniversary, China's special socialism has entered a new era and, in the face of the contradiction between the growing need for a better life for its people and insufficient and uneven development, the Communist Party of China has gradually transformed its socialist approach to economic development through the continuous development and improvement of its socialist economic system and strategic measures, moving towards high-quality development. The independent and relatively complete industrial system has laid the material foundation for economic construction, while the creation of a socialist market economy has set in motion the “engine” of economic growth, but the continued and effective development of the economy is not a process that can be achieved naturally under the conditions of market economy and values. “Economic development is a spiral-up process, which is not linear, and which builds up to a certain stage and must shift towards qualitative upgrading.” Historical experience shows that, since the 1960s, “only a dozen of the world's more than 100 middle-income economies have succeeded in entering high-income economies. The countries that have succeeded have, after a period of rapid growth, moved from a quantitative expansion to a qualitative improvement in economic development, and those that have stagnated or even regressed have failed to achieve this fundamental shift”. Therefore, changing the way socialist economic development takes place and moving towards high-quality development is “an inevitable requirement for development in accordance with economic norms” and China's “economic development also follows this pattern”. Since the Party's eighteenth birthday, the Communist Party of China has been acutely aware of the “unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable problems” that characterize economic development, as well as the problems of “intensity in science, technology and innovation, inappropriate industrial structures, a weak agricultural base and increased resource constraints”, and there is an urgent need to “transform the way economic development takes place”. (69) According to the General Secretary Xi Jinping, based on the main social contradictions and historical aspects of China's social development, as “the socialism of China's identity has entered a new era and our economic development has entered a new one”, “the economy has moved from a high-growth phase to a high-quality stage of development”, the promotion of high-quality economic development “is a necessary requirement for sustained and healthy economic development” and “is a necessary requirement for adapting to the main contradictions in our society and for the comprehensive construction of a small and prosperous society and a modern socialist State”. (70) Unlike capitalist countries, which have changed the way of development in order to promote capital accumulation, the high-quality development of socialist countries is people-centred and embodying a new concept of development, “a development that is the first engine of innovation, the harmoniousness of internality, the greenness of all, the openness of all, and the fundamental purpose of sharing”. (71) In particular, high-quality development requires “a more complete industrial system”, “a constant response to the personalization, diversification and escalating needs of the population”, continuous improvement in the efficiency of the various factors of production, safeguarding of the benefits of the various economic entities, a smooth cycle of production, circulation, distribution and consumption” and steady economic development. Since 2020, Secretary-General Xi Jinping, based on domestic and international circumstances, has further advanced the idea of accelerating the construction of new patterns of development based on a domestic, large-scale, domestic and international dual-cycle that are mutually reinforcing, “Towards higher-quality, more efficient, equitable, sustainable and safer development”, (73) which enriches the quality of development discourse. Building a new development landscape is a comprehensive response to new developments and issues in the new phase of development. It is a systemic and profound change that is at stake. But this is based on large-scale standardized production methods based on low labour costs for enterprises, and rapid economic development depends on the number and size of “world factories”. With the contraction of global markets, the rise in trade protectionism and the effects of the Covid-19 epidemic, as well as changes in domestic consumption structures, rising cost of factors of production, bottlenecks in resource carrying capacity, the overall rise in the importance of science and technology, the problems of “strangulation” and supply-and-demand disconnects within the production system have been highlighted, and economic growth has slowed, indicating that “the old mix of productive functions has become unsustainable” and that “new ways of leading development must be put forward in the light of new developments. At the strategic level, the new development paradigm responds to the question of how China is implementing a new development concept, transforming the way economic development is taking place, promoting high-quality development during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, and ensuring that the socialist modern State is built in its entirety in good and good ways. In particular, first, the guiding principles of the new concept of development should be applied, with innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing as guidelines for action, to address the dynamics of development, the imbalances of development, human harmony with nature, outreach within development and social justice, to promote quality development and to meet the growing needs of people for a better life. Secondly, the strategic direction of structural reforms on the supply side is to reduce the number of ineffective supplies, expand their effectiveness, improve the quality of the supply system as a whole, meet the demand structure of domestic demand standardization and individualization, and achieve a high level of integrity in the national economy. Thirdly, the strategic underpinnings of expanding domestic demand should be reversed, the advantages of large markets continuously consolidated, enhanced, exploited and exploited, demand-side management strengthened, the potential of domestic demand released and the building of mega-domestic markets made a sustainable historical process. Fourthly, by capturing the essential characteristics of achieving a high level of self-reliance, there is a strong push for science, technology and innovation, moving from the introduction of technology to autonomous innovation, addressing various “strangular” and bottlenecks, and guaranteeing the security and stability of the supply chain of the industrial chain. Fifth, through high levels of external openness, a strong system of domestic economic cycles, solid fundamentals, a powerful gravity field for attracting international commodity and factor resources, better utilization of international and domestic markets, two resources, and more robust and sustainable development leading to a world economic recovery. China’s new history of building a modern socialist state in all its aspects will be renewed, and there will be an opportunity to make it a model for the development and modernization of the world economy. From imperialism to the Community of the Destiny of Mankind
The Communist Party of China faced problems in dealing with the capitalist world in the process of socialist modernization. The Communist Party of China, in accordance with the conflicting transformations at different stages of its history and the requirements of building its domestic economy, has rediscovered the idea of the interdependence and universal association of the nations of the world, embedded in the Marx Community doctrine, which transcends the imperialist ideology of ideological division, protagonisms such as the middle zone and the three worlds, peace and development theories, and the Community of Human Destiny. (i) The dialectic relationship between socialist countries and world capitalism
Max's idea of world interaction is based on an analysis of the logic of capital and the class community it shapes. Marx believes that “everything that is fought for is in their interest” (75) According to the development patterns of the economic and social shape of human beings, the interest community is, in turn, a natural community characterized by “human dependence”, a class-based community of interests based on “material dependence” and a human community characterized by “total development of the individual” (Hwang, 2019). In a capitalist society based on material dependence, with the gradual elimination of the original closed form of interaction, “every people depends on the transformation of others”, the modern sense of world interaction based on nation-State and the creation of “absolutely necessary practical preconditions” for the formation of a genuine community of communism. (76) However, the universal interaction of the capitalist world cannot form a true human community, and Marx uses the term “genuine community” in two senses. The first is the “free human association” of the future society. “The common good has become a fundamental principle, the public interest and the personal interest are no longer different.” (77) All are liberated from old productive relationships. The second is the asset “as class has a common interest”, (78) forming a “genuine community” in the form of an international coalition of the State and the bourgeois. (79) The bourgeois State represents the bourgeois community of interests, the essence of which is the “Commission for the Management of Common Services for the Entire bourgeois” (80) capitalist world interaction combines the bourgeois State “with a single nation with a single Government, a unified law, a unified national class interest and a unified customs tariff. (81) The class relations of the capitalist society have been reduced to “the bourgeois and proletariat” and “the society as a whole is increasingly divided into two main hostile camps”. How to move from a class-interesting community to a real human community? Lenin, based on the contradictory relations between the two classes of interests, is trying to make the transition to future social development through the proletarian community’s revolution against the bourgeois community, as a way to guide the socialist states’ external relations. Lenin created the imperialist theory against the background of the monopolistic capitalist stage of the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, developed the antagonistic relationship between the two classes of interest community into a relationship between the socialist State representing the interests of the proletarian community and the capitalist State representing the interests of the bourgeois community, and emphasized the destructive role of the developed countries representing the monopolistic capital interests in the backward regions of the country. Although Lenin had pointed out that the objective pattern of universal interaction in the world was not limited by the subjective aspirations of any class (Lenin, 2017b) and that socialist countries should actively take advantage of the advanced technology and management experience of capitalist countries, even at a certain cost, relations between the Soviet Union and capitalist countries were premised on and based on the contradiction between the class community (Lenin, 2017a), and their relationship was based solely on the purpose of absorbing and exploiting the civilizational achievements of the advanced countries by backward countries, essentially “the continuation of war on the economy”. (83) “every change in world politics necessarily revolves around a central point, the struggle against the Russian Soviet Republic around the world bourgeois” (84), in which antiimperialist, pro-procedural power comes mainly from the oppressed State and its working class. Stalin further developed the antagonism of the two classes of interest community into an antagonistic conflict between the socialist and capitalist blocs. After the 1950s, the opposing theory of the two classes of interest community formed an ideologically drawn cold war mentality, manifested in an confrontational relationship between the socialist bloc represented by the Soviet Union and the capitalist bloc represented by the United States, which waged decades of “cold” struggles through local proxy wars, science and technology and arms races, space competitions, and diplomatic competition. (ii) The period of the socialist revolution and construction: the middle zone and three world theories
The Middle Zone and the three worlds were the first time that the Communist Party of China had developed and articulated Marxist theory of world interaction in Chinese. It broke out of the bipolar antagonism that was then known as the Guérèse, re-emphasizing the long-neglected Marxist-Nggs theory of universal interaction in the world, suggesting that States with different social systems could be a community of interests, laying the theoretical foundation for the recognition and handling of the external relations of the proletarian-class political parties of socialist States and their full participation in world relations, and seeking an international environment conducive to the development of survival and the building of socialism. Mao believes that there are two intermediate zones in the world after the end of World War II: “Asia, Africa, Latin America are the first, and Europe, North America, Canada and Oceania are the second. Japan also falls into the second middle zone.” (85) In 1974, Mao advanced three world theories based on the middle zone theory, pointing out that there are three worlds that are “connected and contradictory” and that “the United States, the Soviet Union, are the first world. The centrists, Japan, Europe, Australia, Canada are the second world. We are the third world. “Asia, except Japan, is the third world. Africa as a whole is the third world, and Latin America is the third world.” (86)
The middle zone and the three world theories have emerged from the main contradictions in the simple ideological determination of world relations, pointing out that there are also contradictions within the class interest community, which should not be confined to the bipolar dichotomy of the class community. As early as the liberation war began, Mao realized that the world’s main contradictions transcended the dichotomy of the class community (Ludden I, 1947). After the formation of the new China, the Western bloc countries became increasingly in conflict with the US, with its “policies of power” in the broad middle of the country, (87) not only against the US, but also against its oppressed nation. There was also a contradiction within the socialist camp, where relations deteriorated as a result of the Soviet policy of great country chauvinism towards China (King Wan, 2015). According to Mao Zedong, many nationalist States are not “imperialist or socialist” (88) and the various class communities have a super-social common interest in opposing hegemonicism. China supports, to the extent possible, the anti-colonial anti-imperialist struggle of the people of Asia and Africa, offers the best possible assistance to the friendly countries of Asia and Africa, which have become independent, and maintains greater strategic initiatives in the complex international situation (Li Jie, 1993). At the same time, China’s international trade with South-East Asian countries, as well as some Western countries, has evolved. In Japan’s case, China’s export-import trade totalled $992,000 in 1953 and increased to $810 million in 1970. The Middle Zone and the three world theories point to the need for China to maximize its interaction in the light of the need for socialist construction, including by strengthening exchanges and cooperation with capitalist countries. In 1954, Mao Tsedong proposed “to cooperate with all those who are willing to do so”, (90) the eight resolutions of the 1956 party stated that “in Western capitalist countries, the social forces for peace and against war are growing” and that they “to establish and develop normal diplomatic and economic cultural relations with all countries willing to establish diplomatic relations and economic and cultural relations with our country”. (91) Not only has China developed economic and trade relations with the socialist blocs, but trade with the second-world countries, such as Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany, has also grown rapidly. The industrial equipment package introduced by China from Western countries in the mid- and late 1970s became an important basis for China's economic development (Pi Changhong, 2021). In 1978, total Chinese and Chinese (federal) German trade increased to $4.82 billion and $1.36 billion, respectively, from 880 million and $230 million in 1971. (iii) Reform of the era of openness and socialist modernization: the idea of peace and development and the trend towards multipolarization of the world
After the 1970s, the Deng Xiaoqing Communist Party of China re-examined the reality of the existence of two opposing class communities in the capitalist world in the light of China's historical location and domestic economic development needs, noting that the economic interests of China and the capitalist world would not only affect China's socialist system, but would also contribute to the building of socialism and further develop the Marxist idea of world interaction. In the light of the overall strategy of “peace and development”, China's great historical practice of gradual openness in the areas of region, industry, trade and investment has been innovative in resolving the question of how China can build socialism in the capitalist world. The idea of peace and development holds that “the real problems of the world today are those of a global strategic nature, one of peace and one of economic or developmental issues. It has inherited three world theories, stating that the confrontational relationship between the two classes of the community is no longer the main issue, and that China should seize the opportunities offered by capital for universal development in the world, promote socialism in China and create the conditions for a true community of mankind. Deng Xiaoping's clear and innovative discourse on the need for broad world interaction based on the logic of development among the nations of the world has shown the overall direction of cooperation in China's relations with the capitalist world, and has set the tone for a determined expansion and deepening of external openness. The idea of peace and development answers the question of the relationship between socialist state-building and foreign capital, noting that socialism can be built in the capitalist world. On the basis of Lenin’s theory of monopolistic capital, Deng Xiaoping has revealed the double nature of capital in developed countries, laying the theoretical foundation for China to use foreign capital to build socialism. The new China, which has established a socialist system, has a large “socialist economic base” and is able to cooperate with international capital in an independent and autonomous manner. It is no longer a predator who is unable to free itself from international capital control. “Opening the outside world is conducive to the growth and development of the socialist economy. In the case of the Chinese economy, which lacks advanced production technology and modern management experience, the absorption of international capital for investment in China can resolve the problem of insufficient capital accumulation more quickly. In the context of globalization, China's socialist construction and capital of a capital capital capital capital are not mutually exclusive relations based on antagonism; cooperation between the two is not a stopgap measure in the face of confrontational thinking; the socialist State's own development through its participation in the capitalist world is an inherent requirement of the socialist commodity economy (Longsheng, 2014). Between 1979 and 1984, the size of China's foreign investment in the form of joint ventures, cooperative ventures, foreign investment and cooperative development projects amounted to $2,963 million, which increased to $32.405 billion in 1985-1992 (Wang Haibo and Liu Lifeng, 2017). After the 1990s, the Communist Party of China, in line with the changes in the world situation, moved away from the idea of ideological restrictions to introduce a multipolar trend in the world and actively promoted China's progressive opening up to the outside world. The world’s “multipolar” trend is distinguished from the concept of “multipolarization” previously proposed by French scholars, among others. First, it is guided by the value of “human free association” and emphasizes the common participation and equal consultation of all countries in the democratization of international relations in order to guarantee world peace and development. Subsidiarily, it places the trend of multipolarization in the world under the division of three worlds, rather than the United States and the Soviet Union at its core, meaning that the perception of multipolarization is not premised on two ideologically based confrontational camps. Third, it links the trend towards multipolarization with the development of globalization, noting that “the trend towards multipolarization and economic globalization in the world is developing in a twist.” (96) Guided by the idea of multipolarization, the Communist Party of China has accurately captured the trend towards the globalization of production networks based on “fragmentation of production”, insisting on greater openness to the outside world and increasing China's participation in world markets. In 1993-2000, China was the second largest country in the world in terms of foreign investment, after the United States. In 2000, China actually used foreign capital from $19.2 billion in 1992 to $59.4 billion, while foreign investment accounted for about 10.3 per cent of China’s total fixed-asset investment in that year (Wang Haibo and Liu Lifeng, 2017). The world’s multipolar tendency to treat China as the world’s pole means that China must not only develop in the world, but also participate in the construction of the world order. China’s participation in the construction of the international order is more proactive, because, on the one hand, China’s relations with the capitalist world have become more complex. In addition to conflicts arising from the division of different class interests, closer international economic interaction has given rise to more ideologically shared interests, and countries in different places in the “Three Worlds” face deeper divisions on issues such as the mechanisms of world economic governance. On the other hand, since China has gradually acquired the power to participate in the reform of the international political and economic order, particularly after “the international financial crisis has pushed our country further into the forefront of the international community's discussion and treatment of major issues”, China needs to defend its interests from imitation to the mature application of international rules. (iv) The new era of socialism in China: the idea of a community of human destinies
After 2012, China's unique socialism entered a new era, the world is going through a century of great transformations, and China is at a historic moment closer to the great renaissance of the Chinese nation than at any time in its history. The Chinese Communist Party looks at China's relations with world capitalism in the face of the fate of all mankind, systematically summed up the Chinese Communist Party's thinking of external relations, drawing nutrition from the Chinese nation's ideal tradition of a “congress” society, raising the idea of a community of human destinies, and clearly answering the major historical question of what kind of open economy China should develop and how to better build the human world. The Community of Human Destiny (Community of Destiny) system summarizes the ideas of the Communist Party of China on its external relations, stating that on the basis of universal interaction, humanity can build a community of destinies that transcends the opposing relations between the two classes of the community and develops the Marxist Community doctrine. “Peace, development, equity, justice, democracy, freedom are the common values of all humanity.” (98) It has no ideological intrinsic attributes. “The idea leads the way and the way out” (99) Human beings can consciously change the world together and move towards a community of “full development of the individual”. The One Way initiative is a model for China’s pioneering community of human destinies. It not only overcomes the pitfalls of capitalism’s “reliance on things” in terms of principles and concepts, but also supports the construction model’s move from “reliance on things” to “comprehensive personal development.” The “one-way” focus is on connectivity, with infrastructure as a cornerstone and an accurate grasp of the economic development patterns of developed commodities. “The more production is based on exchange of value, the more the exchange of material terms — means of transport — is important for production. “Big industry should first create the necessary means, namely large industrial cities and cheap and accessible transport.” (101) For countries that are relatively backward, China’s use of infrastructure as a cornerstone of connectivity is key to breaking the bottlenecks in the continued lack of development of backward countries. At present, the “Multinational Ports of the Six Corridors” are largely in place, with positive developments such as the Old Central Railway, the Central-Thai Railway, the Hungarian Railway and the Javan High Iron. Cooperative ports such as the Port of Guadal and the Port of Hanbantota are functioning well and the construction of gas pipelines along the Central-Russian-East is progressing steadily. The idea of a community of human destinies highlights issues of global productive relations that have been sidelined by mainstream international economic theories, emphasizing win-win development. Mainstream international economics theories, premised on the “economic hypothesis” and based on the theory of comparative advantage, seek to hide the unequal economic relations between developed capitalist countries and backward countries since capitalist production was established. However, as Marx has revealed, the essence of the human person is “the sum of all social relations” (103) all economic behaviour occurs in a particular productive relationship, the “economic hypothesis” circumvents the essence of the summation of the human person's social relations, and the theory of comparative advantage ignores the fact that international trade takes place in a capital-led international division of labour. If these theories guide practice, China, as a developing country, will be extremely vulnerable to being locked at the lower end of the international division of labour and a victim of the “core-outlying” world system. The idea of the Human Destiny Community is that, in the context of the globalization of the economy, countries should build a prosperous world by building an open world economy. China is opening up to the outside world at a higher level, namely, high-standard trade agreements, high-quality global cooperation platforms, free trade zones, and high-open trade rules (Gang Xiaojin, 2021), thus promoting a mutually beneficial win-win world. From 2013 to early 2021, China has established 21 free trade pilot zones (104), including the world's largest RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement), which submitted applications to the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (CPTPP) in 2021. The idea of a community of human destinies overcomes the narrow perspective of the mainstream doctrine of international political economics based on the doctrine of hegemonic stability and aimed at defending the interests of national capital. Since the emergence of capitalist production, hegemonic States such as the United Kingdom and the United States had played the role of custodians of the international order in defence of their capital interests, but that did not mean that the international order had only one form. It is the New International Order Initiative (Pi Changhong, 2021), which is guided by the values of mutual benefit, pluralism, balance and efficiency of security, and which embraces “the preservation and practice of multilateralism” as a solution to the world's problems. (105) As a new model of international cooperation, China's “one-way-by-the-way” initiative, which provides ideas and programmes for building a community of human destinies, based on the principle of shared ownership and the concept of green, open and cleanness, has been recognized and responded to by a growing number of countries. As of January 2021, China had signed 205 “one-way” cooperation documents with 171 countries and international organizations, establishing financial organizations such as the Asian Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund and the “16+1” financial holding company. Between 2013 and 2020, China accumulated $136 billion in direct investment from countries along the border, with countries along the “one-way” route actually investing about $60 billion in China. In 2020, China accounted for more than half of China's outsourcing operations along the “one-way” route, with new contracts of $141.46 billion and sales of $91.12 billion. In capital-led world markets, capital logic exposes human societies to common problems that threaten their very existence. Peace deficits, development deficits, and the growing ambivalence of human societies, “no country can resolve it alone.” As Marx revealed in the “two never” doctrine, (107) the capitalist world cannot die of its own free will, and the creation of a community of human destinies requires the concerted efforts of all peoples. The “full theory” of the proletariat political parties is derived from a study of political economics (108) and “the extent to which the theory is realized in a country is always determined by the extent to which the theory meets the needs of the country. As capitalism expands worldwide, linking the then advanced capitalist social patterns with those of backward countries, including through aggression and colonization, has prevented the development of backward countries and created mixed social patterns, on the basis of which the practice of socialism has evolved, creating a new set of unresolved problems in the Marx and Engels classics, requiring the Chinese Communist Party to “unify its adherence to Marxistism and the development of Marxistism on the basis of China's concrete reality and to create new theories in the light of new practices”. 110) It is on the basis of the independent application of Marxist positions, views and approaches that the Communist Party of China, in the context of the specific practices of the Chinese revolution, construction and reform, has implemented dialectics and historical materialism, applied basic contradictions and major contradictory analyses, accurately captured the historical dimensions of China's social development, integrated the two major national and international agendas, resolved the problems of the construction of a socialist economy and the interaction of the capitalist world, created a new way of modernizing the Chinese style, shaped the historical dialectics of Chinese identity, the socialist economic construction theory of Chinese identity and the theory of the socialist and world capitalist economic relations of China, and opened a new frontier in the political economics of Marxistism. The Chinese Communist Party’s theoretical creation is characterized by a convergence of stages and continuity. Phaseism means that the Chinese Communist Party is based on the different stages of China’s history of revolution, construction, and reform, developing and developing economic ideas adapted to the realities of that period; continuity means that each stage of the Chinese Communist Party’s economic thinking is the latest in the economic thinking of the previous phase and the development of China’s economy. “The whole spirit of Marxism, its entire system, requires that each principle be (α) historical, (beta) linked to other principles, and (gamma) linked to specific historical experiences. In view of the profound and complex changes taking place in the domestic and foreign environment, the General Secretary Xi Jinping has taken stock of the world's developments and the characteristics of China's stage of development, and has produced a series of discussions on the construction and development of a socialist economy characterized by the Chinese Communist Party, which has been at the forefront of the centuries-old economic thinking of the Chinese Communist Party and of the theory of Marxist political economy, which has been inherited, developed and innovated by the Chinese Communist Party. The General Secretary Xi Jinping's statement on the economics of socialism in China's identity correctly captures the essence of the socialist economic development of China's identity. Science has judged the historical dimensions of the socialist economic development of China's identity, deeply articulated the strategic policies of the socialist economic development of China's identity, developed a theoretical system of intrinsic logic, responded deeply to the call for the great practice of socialism in China's character in the new era, and provided a Chinese programme to solve the common problems facing humanity. China has contributed its wisdom to the building of a better world and has become a high ground for ideological theory leading to the innovative development of the world Marxistism, which initially shaped the Marxist economics academic system of the twenty-first century. 1 Xi Jinping: Speech at the Congress for Education and Mobilization in Party History, No. 7 of 2021.
2 Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 30, People's Press, 1995, pp. 107-108.
3 Marx: Capitalism, Vol. 2, People's Press, 2004, p. 44.
4 Max Engels, vol. 2, People's Press, 2009, p. 592.
Although Engels here does not explicitly refer to the “future communist society”, the more advanced stage of the communist society is implied by quoting the words of Morgan as a concluding phrase.
6 Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 4, People's Press, 1995, pp. 275-276.
7 Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 9, 1961 edition, People's Press, pp. 247, 145.
8 “Conconnection” refers to the state of joint domination of capitalist and non-capitalist production methods in backward countries, see Taylor (1979).
9 Trotsky: 1905, https://www.marxists.org/chinese/trotsky/1905/b04.htm.
10 Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 1, 1991 edition, People's Press, pp. 308-311.
(11) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 1, 1991 edition, People's Press, p. 314.
(12) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 1, 1991 edition, People's Press, p. 314.
(13) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 1, 1991 edition, People's Press, pp. 322, 323.
(14) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 2, 1991 edition, People's Press, pp. 626-628.
(15) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 2, 1991 edition, p. 631.
(16) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents (Up) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 192.
(17) Mao also envisaged that “this stage of socialism may be divided into two phases, the first one being less developed socialism and the second being more developed socialism. The latter period may take longer than the previous period.” Mao Zedong, vol. 8, People's Press, 1999, p. 116. (18) Vol. 3, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, p. 252.
(19) Vol. 3, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, pp. 379-380.
(20) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended (Up), 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 476.
(21) Xi Jinping: " Adherence to historical materialism continues to open up a new frontier for the development of contemporary Chinese Marxism ", No. 2, 2020.
(22) Central Party History and Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party: Selected Documents of Importance since the Nineteenth Anniversary (Up), Central Documentation Publishing House, 2019 edition, p. 9.
(23) Xi Jinping: " Taking the new stage of development, implementing the new concept of development and shaping the new development landscape ", No. 9 of 2021.
(24) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 4, 1991 edition, p. 1254.
(25) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Documents of Importance since the founding of the State, volume 1, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 282.
(26) Cho Enlai Selection Series (below), 1984 edition, p. 107.
(27) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Upwards) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, pp. 188-189.
(28) Mao Zedong Spectrum, vol. 2, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2013 edition, p. 116.
(29) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Documents of Importance since the founding of the State, volume 9, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 292.
(30) Mao Zedong Spectrum, vol. 2, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2013 edition, p. 200.
(31) Emancipation of Jiang Zemin, vol. 1, People's Press 2006, p. 342.
(32) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Documents of Importance since the founding of the State, volume 9, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 292.
(33) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents since the founding of the State, volume 9, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 293.
(34) Chinese Communist Party History Unit: Chinese Communist Party History, vol. 2 (above), Chinese Communist Party History Press, 2011 edition, p. 396.
(35) Mao Zedong: Questions concerning the correct handling of people's internal contradictions (bis), People's Daily, edition 2, 19 June 1957.
(36) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents since the founding of the State, volume 11, 2011 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, pp. 249-250.
(37) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended (Up), 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 193.
(38) Vol. 2, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1994, p. 182.
(39) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Upwards) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, pp. 474, 476.
(40) Vol. 3, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, p. 373.
(41) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Up) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 476.
(42) Central Party History and Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party: Selected Documents of Importance since the Nineteenth Anniversary (Up), Central Documentation Publishing House, 2019 edition, p. 7.
(43) Xi Jinping: " Taking the new stage of development, implementing the new concept of development and shaping the new development landscape ", No. 9 of 2021.
(44) Central Communist Party History and Documentation Research Office: Selected Highlights (Up) since the Nineteenth Anniversary, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2019 edition, p. 8.
(45) Xi Jinping: " Taking the new stage of development, implementing the new concept of development and shaping the new development landscape ", No. 9 of 2021.
(46) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 293.
(47) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 19, 1963 edition, p. 451.
(48) Lenin Encyclopaedia, vol. 34, 2017 edition, p. 357.
(49) Lenin Selection Series, vol. 4, 2020 edition, p. 542.
(50) Stalin Selection Series (Up), 1979 edition, p. 462.
(51) Stalin Selection Series (Up), 1979 edition, p. 464.
(52) Vol. 3, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, pp. 258-259.
(53) Central Communist Party History and Documentation Research Office: Selected Highlights (Up) since the Nineteenth Anniversary, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2019 edition, p. 8.
(54) Marx: Capitalism, vol. 1, People's Press, 2004, p. 441.
(55) Mao Zedong, vol. 3, People's Press, 1996 edition, p. 146.
(56) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Documents of Importance since the founding of the State, volume 1, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 8.
(57) Max Engels Encyclopaedia, vol. 30, People's Press, 1995, p. 529.
(58) Mao Zedong Selection Series, vol. 4, 1991 edition, p. 1477.
(59) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Up) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 186.
(60) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 30, People's Press, 1995, p. 452.
(61) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Up) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 25.
(62) Vol. 2, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1994, pp. 235, 236.
(63) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Materials of Importance (Up) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Openness, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 347.
(64) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents (below) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 892.
(65) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents (below) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, pp. 899, 1005.
(66) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents (below) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, p. 1220.
(67) Central Documentation Research Office of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Key Documents (below) in the Thirty Years of Reform and Open-ended, 2008 edition of the Central Documentation Publishing House, pp. 890-891.
(68) Xi Jinping: Xi Jinping talk of governance of the State, vol. 3, 2020 edition, p. 238.
(69) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Documents of Importance since the Eighteenth Anniversary (Up), Central Documentation Publishing House, 2014 edition, p. 4.
(70) Xi Jinping: Xi Jinping talk of governance of the State, vol. 3, 2020 edition, p. 237.
(71) Xi Jinping: Xi Jinping talk of governance of the State, vol. 3, 2020 edition, p. 238.
(72) Xi Jinping: Xi Jinping talks about the governance of the country, vol. 3, 2020 edition, pp. 238-239.
(73) Xi Jinping: " Right to know and grasp the major issues of economic and social development in the medium and long term ", No. 2, 2021.
(74) Xi Jinping: " Taking the new stage of development, implementing the new concept of development and shaping the new development landscape ", No. 9 of 2021.
(75) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 187.
(76) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 86.
(77) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 2, People's Press, 1957 edition, p. 609.
(78) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 42, 1979 edition, p. 257.
(79) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 30, People's Press, 1995, p. 490.
(80) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, pp. 84, 274.
(81) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 277.
(82) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 273.
(83) Lenin Encyclopedia, vol. 40, 2017 edition, p. 43.
(84) Lenin Monograph (capitalism), People's Press, 2009, p. 253.
(85) The diplomatic literature of Mao Zedong, 1994 edition of the Central Documentation Press, p. 509.
(86) Mao Zedong Spectrum, vol. 6, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2013 edition, pp. 520-521-528.
(87) The diplomatic literature of Mao Zedong, 1994 edition, p. 205.
(88) The diplomatic literature of Mao Zedong, 1994 edition of the Central Documentation Press, p. 336.
(89) Data source: Chinese Statistical Yearbook.
(90) Mao Zedong Spectrum, vol. 2, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2013 edition, p. 256.
(91) Central Documentation Research Unit of the Communist Party of China: Selected Selected Documents of Importance since the founding of the State, volume 9, Central Documentation Publishing House, 2011 edition, p. 302.
(92) Data source: Chinese Statistical Yearbook.
(93) Vol. 3, Dan Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, p. 105.
(94) Vol. 3, Deng Xiaoping Selected, People's Press, 1993 edition, pp. 103-134.
(95) Emancipation of Jiang Zemin, vol. 3, 2006 edition, p. 108.
(96) Emancipation of Jiang Zemin, vol. 3, 2006 edition, p. 297.
(97) Volume 3 of Hu Jintao Selected, People's Press 2016 Edition, p. 285.
(98) Xi Jinping talk of governance, vol. 2, edition 2017, p. 522.
(99) Xi Jinping: " Towards a Community of Human Destiny ", People's Daily, edition 2, 20 January 2017.
(100) Max Engels Encyclopedia, vol. 30, People's Press, 1995, p. 521.
101) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 116.
(102) See the Chinese section of the Internet: “As a way as an eighth anniversary of international connectivity continues to rise”, 7 September 2021, https://www.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/xwzx/gnxw/186294.htm. (103) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 56.
(104) Data source: China Free Trade Area Service Network, http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/.
(105) Xi Jinping: Let the torch of multilateralism light the way forward for humanity — a special message at the World Economic Forum Dialogue on the “Davos Agenda”, People's Daily, 2nd ed., 26 January 2021.
(106) Data source: All the way to China, https://www.yidayilu.gov.cn/.
(107) “Any form of society will never perish until the full productivity it can accommodate is realized, and a new and higher productive relationship will never arise until its material existence matures in the wombs of the old society”. 108) Max Engels, vol. 2, People's Press, 2009, p. 596.
109) Max Engels Selection Series, vol. 1, People's Press, 1995, p. 11.
110) Xi Jinping: Speech at the Symposium on Social Science in Philosophy, People's Daily, No. 2, 17 May 2016.
111) Lenin Selection Series, vol. 2, People's Press 2012 edition, p. 785.
112) As the General Secretary Xi Jinping has since 2017 made many new comments on the socialist economic development of China's identity, the “Marxist Economics Academic System of the 21st Century”, which is presented here, includes, but is not limited to, the Central Economic Work Session of 2017, synthesizing the contents of Xi's socialist economic thinking of the Chinese identity of the new era. Chinese Communist Party 100-year-old economic ideology
Marxist Political Economics
This post is edited as follows:
Poster: Ideas of Love (http://www.aisixiang.com), column: Academies of Heaven > Economics > Macroeconomics
Link to this paper: http://www.aisixiang.com/data/135833.html
Source: Economic Research No. 10, 2021
Enter an e-mail address in the box, separated by a semi-accompanied comma (,) between multiple emails.